A framework to address the impact of system of systems integration using commercially off the shelf (COTS) technology

Mary D. VanLeer, Rashmi Jain

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

2 Scopus citations


For systems engineering, systems integration (SI) establishes linkages between hardware (HW), software (SW), products, services, processes and humans. Over the last decade the world of systems development has evolved rapidly particularly in the use of commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) products as elements of larger systems. The growing trend toward COTS-based systems (CBS) architectures is based on modular components available within the market. This trend has presented various challenges for systems engineering practitioners attempting to understand the implications of using COTS products within these large and complex projects. This paper analyses those unique aspects of COTS products that influence the SI process differently than the integration of 'in-house' custom developed products.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)23-43
Number of pages21
JournalInternational Journal of System of Systems Engineering
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 7 May 2013



  • CBS
  • COTS
  • COTS-based systems
  • Commercial off the shelf
  • Systems integration
  • Systems life cycle
  • Systems of systems architecture
  • Systems of systems integration complexity
  • Systems requirements

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