A gravitational-wave standard siren measurement of the Hubble constant

Las Cumbres Observatory Collaboration, VINRO UGE Collaboration, MASTER Collaboration, LIGO Scientific Collaboration, Virgo Collaboration, 1M2H Collaboration, Dark Energy Camera GW-EM Collaboration, DES Collaboration, DLT40 Collaboration

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Abstract

On 17 August 2017, the Advanced LIGO1 and Virgo2 detectors observed the gravitational-wave event GW170817-a strong signal from the merger of a binary neutron-star system3. Less than two seconds after the merger, a γ-ray burst (GRB 170817A) was detected within a region of the sky consistent with the LIGO-Virgo-derived location of the gravitational-wave source4-6. This sky region was subsequently observed by optical astronomy facilities7, resulting in the identification8-13 of an optical transient signal within about ten arcseconds of the galaxy NGC 4993. This detection of GW170817 in both gravitational waves and electromagnetic waves represents the first 'multi-messenger' astronomical observation. Such observations enable GW170817 to be used as a 'standard siren'14-18 (meaning that the absolute distance to the source can be determined directly from the gravitational-wave measurements) to measure the Hubble constant. This quantity represents the local expansion rate of the Universe, sets the overall scale of the Universe and is of fundamental importance to cosmology. Here we report a measurement of the Hubble constant that combines the distance to the source inferred purely from the gravitational-wave signal with the recession velocity inferred from measurements of the redshift using the electromagnetic data. In contrast to previous measurements, ours does not require the use of a cosmic 'distance ladder'19: the gravitational-wave analysis can be used to estimate the luminosity distance out to cosmological scales directly, without the use of intermediate astronomical distance measurements. We determine the Hubble constant to be about 70 kilometres per second per megaparsec. This value is consistent with existing measurements20,21, while being completely independent of them. Additional standard siren measurements from future gravitationalwave sources will enable the Hubble constant to be constrained to high precision.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)85-98
Number of pages14
JournalNature
Volume551
Issue number7678
DOIs
StatePublished - 2 Nov 2017

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sirens
Hubble constant
gravitational waves
sky
universe
recession
LIGO (observatory)
binary stars
astronomy
ladders
neutron stars
cosmology
bursts
rays
electromagnetic radiation
luminosity
electromagnetism
galaxies
expansion
detectors

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Las Cumbres Observatory Collaboration, VINRO UGE Collaboration, MASTER Collaboration, LIGO Scientific Collaboration, Virgo Collaboration, 1M2H Collaboration, ... DLT40 Collaboration (2017). A gravitational-wave standard siren measurement of the Hubble constant. Nature, 551(7678), 85-98. https://doi.org/10.1038/nature24471
Las Cumbres Observatory Collaboration ; VINRO UGE Collaboration ; MASTER Collaboration ; LIGO Scientific Collaboration ; Virgo Collaboration ; 1M2H Collaboration ; Dark Energy Camera GW-EM Collaboration ; DES Collaboration ; DLT40 Collaboration. / A gravitational-wave standard siren measurement of the Hubble constant. In: Nature. 2017 ; Vol. 551, No. 7678. pp. 85-98.
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title = "A gravitational-wave standard siren measurement of the Hubble constant",
abstract = "On 17 August 2017, the Advanced LIGO1 and Virgo2 detectors observed the gravitational-wave event GW170817-a strong signal from the merger of a binary neutron-star system3. Less than two seconds after the merger, a γ-ray burst (GRB 170817A) was detected within a region of the sky consistent with the LIGO-Virgo-derived location of the gravitational-wave source4-6. This sky region was subsequently observed by optical astronomy facilities7, resulting in the identification8-13 of an optical transient signal within about ten arcseconds of the galaxy NGC 4993. This detection of GW170817 in both gravitational waves and electromagnetic waves represents the first 'multi-messenger' astronomical observation. Such observations enable GW170817 to be used as a 'standard siren'14-18 (meaning that the absolute distance to the source can be determined directly from the gravitational-wave measurements) to measure the Hubble constant. This quantity represents the local expansion rate of the Universe, sets the overall scale of the Universe and is of fundamental importance to cosmology. Here we report a measurement of the Hubble constant that combines the distance to the source inferred purely from the gravitational-wave signal with the recession velocity inferred from measurements of the redshift using the electromagnetic data. In contrast to previous measurements, ours does not require the use of a cosmic 'distance ladder'19: the gravitational-wave analysis can be used to estimate the luminosity distance out to cosmological scales directly, without the use of intermediate astronomical distance measurements. We determine the Hubble constant to be about 70 kilometres per second per megaparsec. This value is consistent with existing measurements20,21, while being completely independent of them. Additional standard siren measurements from future gravitationalwave sources will enable the Hubble constant to be constrained to high precision.",
author = "{Las Cumbres Observatory Collaboration} and {VINRO UGE Collaboration} and {MASTER Collaboration} and {LIGO Scientific Collaboration} and {Virgo Collaboration} and {1M2H Collaboration} and {Dark Energy Camera GW-EM Collaboration} and {DES Collaboration} and {DLT40 Collaboration} and Abbott, {B. P.} and R. Abbott and Abbott, {T. D.} and F. Acernese and K. Ackley and C. Adams and T. Adams and P. Addesso and Adhikari, {R. X.} and Adya, {V. B.} and C. Affeldt and M. Afrough and B. Agarwal and M. Agathos and K. Agatsuma and N. Aggarwal and Aguiar, {O. D.} and L. Aiello and A. Ain and P. Ajith and B. Allen and G. Allen and A. Allocca and Altin, {P. A.} and A. Amato and A. Ananyeva and Anderson, {S. B.} and Anderson, {W. G.} and Angelova, {S. V.} and S. Antier and S. Appert and K. Arai and Araya, {M. C.} and Areeda, {J. S.} and N. Arnaud and Arun, {K. G.} and S. Ascenzi and G. Ashton and M. Ast and Aston, {S. M.} and P. Astone and Atallah, {D. V.} and P. Aufmuth and C. Aulbert and K. AultONeal and C. Austin and A. Avila-Alvarez and S. Babak and Marc Favata and Rodica Martin",
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Las Cumbres Observatory Collaboration, VINRO UGE Collaboration, MASTER Collaboration, LIGO Scientific Collaboration, Virgo Collaboration, 1M2H Collaboration, Dark Energy Camera GW-EM Collaboration, DES Collaboration & DLT40 Collaboration 2017, 'A gravitational-wave standard siren measurement of the Hubble constant', Nature, vol. 551, no. 7678, pp. 85-98. https://doi.org/10.1038/nature24471

A gravitational-wave standard siren measurement of the Hubble constant. / Las Cumbres Observatory Collaboration; VINRO UGE Collaboration; MASTER Collaboration; LIGO Scientific Collaboration; Virgo Collaboration; 1M2H Collaboration; Dark Energy Camera GW-EM Collaboration; DES Collaboration; DLT40 Collaboration.

In: Nature, Vol. 551, No. 7678, 02.11.2017, p. 85-98.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - A gravitational-wave standard siren measurement of the Hubble constant

AU - Las Cumbres Observatory Collaboration

AU - VINRO UGE Collaboration

AU - MASTER Collaboration

AU - LIGO Scientific Collaboration

AU - Virgo Collaboration

AU - 1M2H Collaboration

AU - Dark Energy Camera GW-EM Collaboration

AU - DES Collaboration

AU - DLT40 Collaboration

AU - Abbott, B. P.

AU - Abbott, R.

AU - Abbott, T. D.

AU - Acernese, F.

AU - Ackley, K.

AU - Adams, C.

AU - Adams, T.

AU - Addesso, P.

AU - Adhikari, R. X.

AU - Adya, V. B.

AU - Affeldt, C.

AU - Afrough, M.

AU - Agarwal, B.

AU - Agathos, M.

AU - Agatsuma, K.

AU - Aggarwal, N.

AU - Aguiar, O. D.

AU - Aiello, L.

AU - Ain, A.

AU - Ajith, P.

AU - Allen, B.

AU - Allen, G.

AU - Allocca, A.

AU - Altin, P. A.

AU - Amato, A.

AU - Ananyeva, A.

AU - Anderson, S. B.

AU - Anderson, W. G.

AU - Angelova, S. V.

AU - Antier, S.

AU - Appert, S.

AU - Arai, K.

AU - Araya, M. C.

AU - Areeda, J. S.

AU - Arnaud, N.

AU - Arun, K. G.

AU - Ascenzi, S.

AU - Ashton, G.

AU - Ast, M.

AU - Aston, S. M.

AU - Astone, P.

AU - Atallah, D. V.

AU - Aufmuth, P.

AU - Aulbert, C.

AU - AultONeal, K.

AU - Austin, C.

AU - Avila-Alvarez, A.

AU - Babak, S.

AU - Favata, Marc

AU - Martin, Rodica

PY - 2017/11/2

Y1 - 2017/11/2

N2 - On 17 August 2017, the Advanced LIGO1 and Virgo2 detectors observed the gravitational-wave event GW170817-a strong signal from the merger of a binary neutron-star system3. Less than two seconds after the merger, a γ-ray burst (GRB 170817A) was detected within a region of the sky consistent with the LIGO-Virgo-derived location of the gravitational-wave source4-6. This sky region was subsequently observed by optical astronomy facilities7, resulting in the identification8-13 of an optical transient signal within about ten arcseconds of the galaxy NGC 4993. This detection of GW170817 in both gravitational waves and electromagnetic waves represents the first 'multi-messenger' astronomical observation. Such observations enable GW170817 to be used as a 'standard siren'14-18 (meaning that the absolute distance to the source can be determined directly from the gravitational-wave measurements) to measure the Hubble constant. This quantity represents the local expansion rate of the Universe, sets the overall scale of the Universe and is of fundamental importance to cosmology. Here we report a measurement of the Hubble constant that combines the distance to the source inferred purely from the gravitational-wave signal with the recession velocity inferred from measurements of the redshift using the electromagnetic data. In contrast to previous measurements, ours does not require the use of a cosmic 'distance ladder'19: the gravitational-wave analysis can be used to estimate the luminosity distance out to cosmological scales directly, without the use of intermediate astronomical distance measurements. We determine the Hubble constant to be about 70 kilometres per second per megaparsec. This value is consistent with existing measurements20,21, while being completely independent of them. Additional standard siren measurements from future gravitationalwave sources will enable the Hubble constant to be constrained to high precision.

AB - On 17 August 2017, the Advanced LIGO1 and Virgo2 detectors observed the gravitational-wave event GW170817-a strong signal from the merger of a binary neutron-star system3. Less than two seconds after the merger, a γ-ray burst (GRB 170817A) was detected within a region of the sky consistent with the LIGO-Virgo-derived location of the gravitational-wave source4-6. This sky region was subsequently observed by optical astronomy facilities7, resulting in the identification8-13 of an optical transient signal within about ten arcseconds of the galaxy NGC 4993. This detection of GW170817 in both gravitational waves and electromagnetic waves represents the first 'multi-messenger' astronomical observation. Such observations enable GW170817 to be used as a 'standard siren'14-18 (meaning that the absolute distance to the source can be determined directly from the gravitational-wave measurements) to measure the Hubble constant. This quantity represents the local expansion rate of the Universe, sets the overall scale of the Universe and is of fundamental importance to cosmology. Here we report a measurement of the Hubble constant that combines the distance to the source inferred purely from the gravitational-wave signal with the recession velocity inferred from measurements of the redshift using the electromagnetic data. In contrast to previous measurements, ours does not require the use of a cosmic 'distance ladder'19: the gravitational-wave analysis can be used to estimate the luminosity distance out to cosmological scales directly, without the use of intermediate astronomical distance measurements. We determine the Hubble constant to be about 70 kilometres per second per megaparsec. This value is consistent with existing measurements20,21, while being completely independent of them. Additional standard siren measurements from future gravitationalwave sources will enable the Hubble constant to be constrained to high precision.

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Las Cumbres Observatory Collaboration, VINRO UGE Collaboration, MASTER Collaboration, LIGO Scientific Collaboration, Virgo Collaboration, 1M2H Collaboration et al. A gravitational-wave standard siren measurement of the Hubble constant. Nature. 2017 Nov 2;551(7678):85-98. https://doi.org/10.1038/nature24471