We develop a new collection of tools aimed at studying stochastically perturbed dynamical systems. Specifically, in the setting of bi-stability, that is a two-attractor system, it has previously been numerically observed that a small noise volume is sufficient to destroy would be zero-noise case barriers in the phase space (pseudo-barriers), thus creating a pre-heteroclinic tangency chaos-like behavior. The stochastic dynamical system has a corresponding Frobenius-Perron operator with a stochastic kernel, which describes how densities of initial conditions move under the noisy map. Thus in studying the action of the Frobenius-Perron operator, we learn about the transport of the map; we have employed a Galerkin-Ulam-like method to project the Frobenius-Perron operator onto a discrete basis set of characteristic functions to highlight this action localized in specified regions of the phase space. Graph theoretic methods allow us to re-order the resulting finite dimensional Markov operator approximation so as to highlight the regions of the original phase space which are particularly active pseudo-barriers of the stochastic dynamics. Our toolbox allows us to find: (1) regions of high activity of transport, (2) flux across pseudo-barriers, and also (3) expected time of escape from pseudo-basins. Some of these quantities are also possible via the manifold dependent stochastic Melnikov method, but Melnikov only applies to a very special class of models for which the unperturbed homoclinic orbit is available. Our methods are unique in that they can essentially be considered as a "black-box" of tools which can be applied to a wide range of stochastic dynamical systems in the absence of a priori knowledge of manifold structures. We use here a model of childhood diseases to showcase our methods. Our tools will allow us to make specific observations of: (1) loss of reducibility between basins with increasing noise, (2) identification in the phase space of active regions of stochastic transport, (3) stochastic flux which essentially completes the heteroclinic tangle.
- Stochastic Frobenius-Perron operator
- Stochastic bifurcation
- Stochastic chaos
- Stochastic dynamical systems
- Stochastic heteroclinic tangle
- Stochastic transport