Regional inequality in China has attracted considerable scholarly attention, but the use of geographic information system (GIS) techniques for rigorous analysis remains limited. This paper utilizes recent data and GIS and spatial statistical techniques to analyze changing patterns of regional inequality in China from 1978 to 2000. It also identifies the changing clusters of regional development in China. We illustrate that regional inequality in China is sensitive to development trajectories of the provinces, and that conventional measures of regional inequality mask geographical clustering. Patterns of change are explained by both contextual and regression analyses.