Antiviral activity of theaflavin digallate against herpes simplex virus type 1

Aline De Oliveira, Derek Prince, Chih Yu Lo, Lee Lee, Tin Chun Chu

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

17 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Tea is the second most consumed drink in the world. The beneficial effects of tea have been mostly attributed to its catechin content. Black tea is derived from the leaves of Camellia sinensis plant, and it is rich in theaflavin polyphenols, in particular theaflavin (TF1), theaflavin-3-monogallate (TF2A), theaflavin-3′-monogallate (TF2B), and theaflavin-3,3′-digallate (TF3). Vero and A549 cells were used to evaluate the effect of purified individual black tea theaflavins as anti-herpes simplex virus 1 agents. With the rise of HSV resistant strains, there is a critical need to develop novel antiherpesviral treatments. Results of the cytotoxicity assay tested by MTS [3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-5-(3-carboxymethoxy-phenyl)-2-(4-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium] showed that TF1, TF2, and TF3 are not toxic to Vero and A549 cells at a concentration up to 75 μM. The antiviral activity of the individual theaflavins was tested by plaque reduction assay, MTS assay, flow cytometric analysis and confocal microscopy observations. The results showed that TF1, TF2, and TF3 exhibit potent, dose-dependent anti-HSV-1 effect, with TF3 being the most efficient in both Vero and A549 cells. A concentration of 50 μM TF3 and above was sufficient to inhibit >99% of the production of HSV-1 viral particles. The anti-HSV-1 effect of TF3 is due to a direct effect on the virions, and treating Vero or A549 cells with TF3 for 1 h prior to infection, or treating the cells at different times post infection does not inhibit HSV-1 production. TF3 is stable at vaginal pH, indicating its potential to be a promising natural and affordable remedy against herpes simplex viral infections.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)56-67
Number of pages12
JournalAntiviral Research
Volume118
DOIs
StatePublished - 1 Jun 2015

Fingerprint

Human Herpesvirus 1
Antiviral Agents
Vero Cells
Tea
theaflavin digallate
theaflavin
Virion
Camellia sinensis
Herpes Simplex
Catechin
Poisons
Polyphenols
Virus Diseases
Infection
Confocal Microscopy

Keywords

  • A549 cells
  • HSV-1
  • Herpes simplex virus
  • Natural product
  • Theaflavins
  • Vero cells

Cite this

De Oliveira, Aline ; Prince, Derek ; Lo, Chih Yu ; Lee, Lee ; Chu, Tin Chun. / Antiviral activity of theaflavin digallate against herpes simplex virus type 1. In: Antiviral Research. 2015 ; Vol. 118. pp. 56-67.
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abstract = "Tea is the second most consumed drink in the world. The beneficial effects of tea have been mostly attributed to its catechin content. Black tea is derived from the leaves of Camellia sinensis plant, and it is rich in theaflavin polyphenols, in particular theaflavin (TF1), theaflavin-3-monogallate (TF2A), theaflavin-3′-monogallate (TF2B), and theaflavin-3,3′-digallate (TF3). Vero and A549 cells were used to evaluate the effect of purified individual black tea theaflavins as anti-herpes simplex virus 1 agents. With the rise of HSV resistant strains, there is a critical need to develop novel antiherpesviral treatments. Results of the cytotoxicity assay tested by MTS [3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-5-(3-carboxymethoxy-phenyl)-2-(4-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium] showed that TF1, TF2, and TF3 are not toxic to Vero and A549 cells at a concentration up to 75 μM. The antiviral activity of the individual theaflavins was tested by plaque reduction assay, MTS assay, flow cytometric analysis and confocal microscopy observations. The results showed that TF1, TF2, and TF3 exhibit potent, dose-dependent anti-HSV-1 effect, with TF3 being the most efficient in both Vero and A549 cells. A concentration of 50 μM TF3 and above was sufficient to inhibit >99{\%} of the production of HSV-1 viral particles. The anti-HSV-1 effect of TF3 is due to a direct effect on the virions, and treating Vero or A549 cells with TF3 for 1 h prior to infection, or treating the cells at different times post infection does not inhibit HSV-1 production. TF3 is stable at vaginal pH, indicating its potential to be a promising natural and affordable remedy against herpes simplex viral infections.",
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Antiviral activity of theaflavin digallate against herpes simplex virus type 1. / De Oliveira, Aline; Prince, Derek; Lo, Chih Yu; Lee, Lee; Chu, Tin Chun.

In: Antiviral Research, Vol. 118, 01.06.2015, p. 56-67.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

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AU - De Oliveira, Aline

AU - Prince, Derek

AU - Lo, Chih Yu

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AB - Tea is the second most consumed drink in the world. The beneficial effects of tea have been mostly attributed to its catechin content. Black tea is derived from the leaves of Camellia sinensis plant, and it is rich in theaflavin polyphenols, in particular theaflavin (TF1), theaflavin-3-monogallate (TF2A), theaflavin-3′-monogallate (TF2B), and theaflavin-3,3′-digallate (TF3). Vero and A549 cells were used to evaluate the effect of purified individual black tea theaflavins as anti-herpes simplex virus 1 agents. With the rise of HSV resistant strains, there is a critical need to develop novel antiherpesviral treatments. Results of the cytotoxicity assay tested by MTS [3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-5-(3-carboxymethoxy-phenyl)-2-(4-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium] showed that TF1, TF2, and TF3 are not toxic to Vero and A549 cells at a concentration up to 75 μM. The antiviral activity of the individual theaflavins was tested by plaque reduction assay, MTS assay, flow cytometric analysis and confocal microscopy observations. The results showed that TF1, TF2, and TF3 exhibit potent, dose-dependent anti-HSV-1 effect, with TF3 being the most efficient in both Vero and A549 cells. A concentration of 50 μM TF3 and above was sufficient to inhibit >99% of the production of HSV-1 viral particles. The anti-HSV-1 effect of TF3 is due to a direct effect on the virions, and treating Vero or A549 cells with TF3 for 1 h prior to infection, or treating the cells at different times post infection does not inhibit HSV-1 production. TF3 is stable at vaginal pH, indicating its potential to be a promising natural and affordable remedy against herpes simplex viral infections.

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