App Usage Associated With Full Redemption of WIC Food Benefits: A Propensity Score Approach

Qi Zhang, Junzhou Zhang, Kayoung Park, Chuanyi Tang

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

9 Scopus citations


Objective: To examine the relationship between WICShopper application (app) usage and full redemption of Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) food benefits. Design: A cross-sectional study. Setting: West Virginia WIC program. Participants: A total of 23,050 West Virginia WIC households in 2019. Main Outcome Measures: Full redemptions were defined as the redemption rate of ≥ 90% for a given food benefit. Analysis: App/non-app users were defined as households with someone using/not using the WICShopper app. Multivariate logistic regressions were applied. To address the potential self-selection bias in app usage, the propensity score (PS) of app usage was estimated. The regressions were rerun with the balanced sample by matching the PS. Results: With PS matching, the prevalence of full redemption at the household level was 7.2% for app users vs 4.7% for nonapp users (odds ratio, 1.64; 95% confidence interval, 1.40–1.92; P < 0.001). App users had a higher prevalence of full redemption in most food categories, even with PS matching. Conclusions and Implications: Use of the WICShopper app was associated with a higher prevalence of full redemptions in most food benefits after controlling the self-selection bias.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)779-786
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of Nutrition Education and Behavior
Issue number9
StatePublished - Sep 2021


  • EBT
  • WIC
  • food benefits
  • mobile phone app
  • propensity score


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