Climate change, a significant dependence on fossil fuels for energy, the need for sustainable economic development, and the current economic slowdown that affected the housing market have created new opportunities to utilize woody materials as a source of renewable energy. Wood has been used as a source of energy for millennia, but recent developments in technology, improvements in energy conversion, and the potential net benefits of its use compared to nonrenewable fossil fuels have motivated the use of wood as an integral part of comprehensive renewable energy portfolios in many countries. Governments at all levels have taken a proactive approach to promote the use of woody biomass as feedstock for energy and biofuels production. As technology improvements are made and conversion processes become economically viable, the evolution of wood-based bioproducts production will likely continue on an upward trajectory. This chapter provides an assessment of the landscape for wood-based feedstocks, bioprocessing methods and products, developments in global markets, and challenges associated with greater wood energy utilization.