Bullying types and roles in early adolescence: Latent classes of perpetrators and victims

Samantha Coyle, Alli Cipra, Sandra Yu Rueger

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

23 Scopus citations


Although research has suggested that youth involved in bullying as victims, perpetrators, or both are at risk for negative outcomes, less work has investigated different patterns in how youth are involved in bullying with consideration for both the role (i.e., victimization and perpetration) as well as type of behaviors experienced (i.e., cyber, verbal, relational, and physical). Using Latent Class Analysis (LCA), the current study investigated patterns of bullying involvement with a sample of 799 middle school students. Results indicated that five classes of bully-involved youth emerged, including a (a) not involved class, (b) traditional bully victim class, (c) verbal bully-victim class, (d) traditional victim-only class, and (e) cyber bully-victim class. Notably, the bully-involved groups demonstrated significantly more internalizing, externalizing, and school related problems than youth not involved in bullying. Implications regarding identification of youth at risk for social and emotional challenges and intervention planning for bully involved youth are discussed.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)51-71
Number of pages21
JournalJournal of School Psychology
StatePublished - Dec 2021


  • Bullying-perpetration
  • Bullying-victimization
  • Mental health


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