Calibration of the Advanced LIGO detectors for the discovery of the binary black-hole merger GW150914

(LIGO Scientific Collaboration)

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

37 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

In Advanced LIGO, detection and astrophysical source parameter estimation of the binary black hole merger GW150914 requires a calibrated estimate of the gravitational-wave strain sensed by the detectors. Producing an estimate from each detector's differential arm length control loop readout signals requires applying time domain filters, which are designed from a frequency domain model of the detector's gravitational-wave response. The gravitational-wave response model is determined by the detector's opto-mechanical response and the properties of its feedback control system. The measurements used to validate the model and characterize its uncertainty are derived primarily from a dedicated photon radiation pressure actuator, with cross-checks provided by optical and radio frequency references. We describe how the gravitational-wave readout signal is calibrated into equivalent gravitational-wave-induced strain and how the statistical uncertainties and systematic errors are assessed. Detector data collected over 38 calendar days, from September 12 to October 20, 2015, contain the event GW150914 and approximately 16 days of coincident data used to estimate the event false alarm probability. The calibration uncertainty is less than 10% in magnitude and 10° in phase across the relevant frequency band, 20 Hz to 1 kHz.

Original languageEnglish
Article number062003
JournalPhysical Review D
Volume95
Issue number6
DOIs
StatePublished - 28 Mar 2017

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LIGO (observatory)
gravitational waves
detectors
readout
estimates
calendars
false alarms
radiation pressure
feedback control
systematic errors
radio frequencies
astrophysics
actuators
filters
photons

Cite this

@article{c2a25191f705493088cf7b9d4f93d753,
title = "Calibration of the Advanced LIGO detectors for the discovery of the binary black-hole merger GW150914",
abstract = "In Advanced LIGO, detection and astrophysical source parameter estimation of the binary black hole merger GW150914 requires a calibrated estimate of the gravitational-wave strain sensed by the detectors. Producing an estimate from each detector's differential arm length control loop readout signals requires applying time domain filters, which are designed from a frequency domain model of the detector's gravitational-wave response. The gravitational-wave response model is determined by the detector's opto-mechanical response and the properties of its feedback control system. The measurements used to validate the model and characterize its uncertainty are derived primarily from a dedicated photon radiation pressure actuator, with cross-checks provided by optical and radio frequency references. We describe how the gravitational-wave readout signal is calibrated into equivalent gravitational-wave-induced strain and how the statistical uncertainties and systematic errors are assessed. Detector data collected over 38 calendar days, from September 12 to October 20, 2015, contain the event GW150914 and approximately 16 days of coincident data used to estimate the event false alarm probability. The calibration uncertainty is less than 10{\%} in magnitude and 10° in phase across the relevant frequency band, 20 Hz to 1 kHz.",
author = "{(LIGO Scientific Collaboration)} and Abbott, {B. P.} and R. Abbott and Abbott, {T. D.} and Abernathy, {M. R.} and K. Ackley and C. Adams and P. Addesso and Adhikari, {R. X.} and Adya, {V. B.} and C. Affeldt and N. Aggarwal and Aguiar, {O. D.} and A. Ain and P. Ajith and B. Allen and Altin, {P. A.} and Amariutei, {D. V.} and Anderson, {S. B.} and Anderson, {W. G.} and K. Arai and Araya, {M. C.} and Arceneaux, {C. C.} and Areeda, {J. S.} and Arun, {K. G.} and G. Ashton and M. Ast and Aston, {S. M.} and P. Aufmuth and C. Aulbert and S. Babak and Baker, {P. T.} and Ballmer, {S. W.} and Barayoga, {J. C.} and Barclay, {S. E.} and Barish, {B. C.} and D. Barker and B. Barr and L. Barsotti and J. Bartlett and I. Bartos and R. Bassiri and Batch, {J. C.} and C. Baune and B. Behnke and Bell, {A. S.} and Bell, {C. J.} and Berger, {B. K.} and J. Bergman and Marc Favata and Rodica Martin",
year = "2017",
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Calibration of the Advanced LIGO detectors for the discovery of the binary black-hole merger GW150914. / (LIGO Scientific Collaboration).

In: Physical Review D, Vol. 95, No. 6, 062003, 28.03.2017.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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T1 - Calibration of the Advanced LIGO detectors for the discovery of the binary black-hole merger GW150914

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AU - Abbott, B. P.

AU - Abbott, R.

AU - Abbott, T. D.

AU - Abernathy, M. R.

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AU - Adams, C.

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AU - Anderson, W. G.

AU - Arai, K.

AU - Araya, M. C.

AU - Arceneaux, C. C.

AU - Areeda, J. S.

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AU - Ashton, G.

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AU - Aston, S. M.

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AU - Aulbert, C.

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AU - Baker, P. T.

AU - Ballmer, S. W.

AU - Barayoga, J. C.

AU - Barclay, S. E.

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AU - Barker, D.

AU - Barr, B.

AU - Barsotti, L.

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AU - Baune, C.

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AU - Bell, A. S.

AU - Bell, C. J.

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AU - Bergman, J.

AU - Favata, Marc

AU - Martin, Rodica

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N2 - In Advanced LIGO, detection and astrophysical source parameter estimation of the binary black hole merger GW150914 requires a calibrated estimate of the gravitational-wave strain sensed by the detectors. Producing an estimate from each detector's differential arm length control loop readout signals requires applying time domain filters, which are designed from a frequency domain model of the detector's gravitational-wave response. The gravitational-wave response model is determined by the detector's opto-mechanical response and the properties of its feedback control system. The measurements used to validate the model and characterize its uncertainty are derived primarily from a dedicated photon radiation pressure actuator, with cross-checks provided by optical and radio frequency references. We describe how the gravitational-wave readout signal is calibrated into equivalent gravitational-wave-induced strain and how the statistical uncertainties and systematic errors are assessed. Detector data collected over 38 calendar days, from September 12 to October 20, 2015, contain the event GW150914 and approximately 16 days of coincident data used to estimate the event false alarm probability. The calibration uncertainty is less than 10% in magnitude and 10° in phase across the relevant frequency band, 20 Hz to 1 kHz.

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