Chemically enhanced primary treatment of municipal wastewater with ferrate(VI)

Lei Zheng, Huan Feng, Yueqiang Liu, Jinshan Gao, Dibyendu Sarkar, Yang Deng

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

11 Scopus citations


Chemically enhanced primary treatment (CEPT) with ferrate(VI), a multifunctional treatment agent, was investigated for the treatment of municipal wastewater in a laboratory-scale study. The treatment performance was evaluated at different ferrate(VI) doses (0.0–9.0 mg/L as Fe) and pH (6.0 and 7.5). The optimal removals of total suspended solids (TSS) (52%), total chemical oxygen demand (COD) (34%), and total phosphorus (47%) were achieved at the highest ferrate(VI) dose (9.0 mg/L as Fe) and the weakly alkaline condition (pH 7.5). The pollutant abatements principally ascribed to the formation of large-sized aggregate and ensuing sedimentation fell within the reported ranges of CEPT with traditional coagulants. However, different from conventional CEPT, ferrate(VI) appreciably removed recalcitrant dissolved organic phosphorus (49%) and simultaneously inactivated total coliform (3.30 log removal) and Escherichia coli (3.67 log removal) at 9.0 mg/L Fe(VI) and pH 7.5. The CEPT with ferrate(VI) offers an innovative alternative for improving municipal wastewater treatment. Practitioner points: Ferrate(VI) represents a promising agent for chemically enhanced primary treatment (CEPT) of municipal wastewater. CEPT with ferrate(VI) can effectively alleviate TSS, total COD, and total P via the formation of large-sized aggregates and ensuing sedimentation. Ferrate(VI) can substantially remove recalcitrant dissolved organic phosphorus in municipal wastewater. Different from other CEPT coagulants, ferrate(VI) can appreciably inactivate bacterial indicators during CEPT. Higher ferrate(VI) dose and weakly alkaline pH favor the performance of ferrate(VI) CEPT.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)817-825
Number of pages9
JournalWater Environment Research
Issue number6
StatePublished - Jun 2021


  • COD
  • TSS
  • chemical oxidation
  • chemically enhanced primary treatment
  • coagulation
  • disinfection
  • ferrate(VI)
  • phosphorus
  • sedimentation


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