Purpose: The purpose of this study was to synthesize the methodological variability in the speech perception literature for school-age children with residual speech sound disorder (RSSD), with the primary intention of using the existing knowledge to inform clinical decisions and optimize treatment outcomes for children. Method: Ten electronic databases were systematically searched to identify articles examining the speech perception skills of school-age children with RSSD. A total of 11 articles met inclusion criteria, reporting of methodological characteristics was rated and compared across studies, and findings were summarized. Results: The majority of studies reviewed here confirmed the presence of a perceptual deficit for a subset of children with RSSD. However, marked variability across study methodologies limits clinical interpretation and application of the findings. Conclusions: Despite limited research in children with RSSD and wide variability across study procedures, stimulus type, perception type, and task type emerged as potential key factors that provide critical insight into a child’s perceptual skill. The current evidence suggests that deficits in speech perception may significantly impact acquisition of accurate phoneme production for children with RSSD. Furthermore, these findings suggest that assessment and treatment of speech perception may be a critical component of an intervention program for school-age children, although further research is needed to determine effective clinical procedures.