Computerized Adaptive Testing with Multiple-Form Structures

Ronald D. Armstrong, Douglas H. Jones, Nicole B. Koppel, Peter J. Pashley

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

10 Scopus citations


A multiple-form structure (MFS) is an ordered collection or network of testlets (i.e., sets of items). An examinee's progression through the network of testlets is dictated by the correctness of an examinee's answers, thereby adapting the test to his or her trait level. The collection of paths through the network yields the set of all possible test forms, allowing test specialists the opportunity to review them before they are administered. Also, limiting the exposure of an individual MFS to a specific period of time can enhance test security. This article provides an overview of methods that have been developed to generate parallel MFSs. The approach is applied to the assembly of an experimental computerized Law School Admission Test (LSAT).

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)147-164
Number of pages18
JournalApplied Psychological Measurement
Issue number3
StatePublished - May 2004


  • Automated test assembly
  • Computerized adaptive testing
  • Item response theory
  • Multiple-form structures


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