Object recognition is a multi-level process requiring a sequence of algorithms at low, intermediate and high levels. Generally, such systems are open loop with no feedback between levels and assuring their robustness is a key challenge in computer vision research. A robust closed-loop system based on delayed reinforcement learning is introduced in this paper. The parameters of a multi-level system employed for model-based object recognition are learned. The method improves recognition results over time by using the output at the highest level as feedback for the learning system. It has been experimentally validated by learning the parameters of image segmentation and feature extraction and thereby recognizing 2D objects. The approach systematically controls feedback in a multi-level vision system and provides a potential solution to a long-standing problem in the field of computer vision.