Development and validation of the counterfactual thinking for negative events scale

Mark S. Rye, Melissa B. Cahoon, Rahan S. Ali, Tarika Daftary Kapur

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

21 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

We examined the psychometric properties of the newly created Counterfactual Thinking for Negative Events Scale (CTNES) in two studies involving university undergraduates. In Study 1 (N = 634), factor analysis revealed four subscales that correspond with various types of counterfactual thinking: Nonreferent Downward, Other-Referent Upward, Self-Referent Upward, and Nonreferent Upward. The subscales were largely orthogonal and had adequate internal consistency and test-retest reliability. The CTNES subscales were positively correlated with a traditional method of assessing counterfactual thinking and were related as expected to contextual aspects of the negative event, negative affect, and cognitive style. In Study 2 (N = 208), we further examined the validity of the scale and demonstrated that the subscales were sensitive to an experimental manipulation concerning the type of negative event participants recalled. Moreover, the CTNES subscales correlated in the expected direction with measures of coping and cognitive style.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)261-269
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of Personality Assessment
Volume90
Issue number3
DOIs
StatePublished - 1 Jan 2008

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Psychometrics
Reproducibility of Results
Statistical Factor Analysis
Pessimism
Thinking
Direction compound

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Rye, Mark S. ; Cahoon, Melissa B. ; Ali, Rahan S. ; Daftary Kapur, Tarika. / Development and validation of the counterfactual thinking for negative events scale. In: Journal of Personality Assessment. 2008 ; Vol. 90, No. 3. pp. 261-269.
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Development and validation of the counterfactual thinking for negative events scale. / Rye, Mark S.; Cahoon, Melissa B.; Ali, Rahan S.; Daftary Kapur, Tarika.

In: Journal of Personality Assessment, Vol. 90, No. 3, 01.01.2008, p. 261-269.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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