Purpose: This study aims to develop a short Japanese version of the Self-Stigma of Stuttering Scale (4S), which assesses the self-stigma of adults who stutter (AWS) in a self-completed form, and evaluate its psychometric properties and reliability and validity. Methods: After translating the original 4S scale into Japanese (4S-J) through a forward-backward translation process, it was administered to 123 Japanese adults who stutter. A short version of the 4S-J was developed through factor analysis and eliminating items with low loadings to original factors. Reliability was verified by calculating internal consistency and test-retest reliability. Participants also completed the Japanese-translated version of the Rosenberg Self Esteem Scale, General Self-Efficacy Scale, and Subjective Happiness Scale to verify construct validity. As a secondary analysis, our results regarding psychological properties of the short version of the 4S were then compared to those of studies from other countries. Results: Sixteen items were selected for the short version of the scale (4S-J-16), and confirmatory factor analysis verified the original structure of the 4S. We obtained good internal consistency and test-retest reliability. Regarding construct validity, our results showed similar correlation with the other selected scales. The value of all scores on the stigma scale in the Japanese cohort was significantly higher than that in the foreign cohort. Conclusions: Overall, the 4S-J-16 has good internal consistency, test-retest reliability, and construct validity with a three-factor structure of self-stigma in Japanese AWS. The findings suggest that Japanese cultural background increases the stigma scores, thereby enabling us to briefly assess the psychosocial issues of AWS.
- Developmental stuttering
- Psychosocial issues