In morphogenetic dynamics of neurons, and in adaptive physiology of brain function, transcription factors of the cyclicAMP signaling pathway, such as activator cyclicAMP responsive element binding protein (CREB) and inhibitor inducible cyclicAMP early repressor (ICER), play an important role. In particular, the presence of the transcription factor ICER in neurons or neuroendocrine cells suggests the need for the gating of an up-regulated gene expression. Little is known, however, about the natural distribution of the inhibitory transcription factor ICER. We, therefore, mapped the rodent brain and pituitary for an ICER immunoreaction and found a nuclear staining for this transcription factor. ICER-positive glial cells were found throughout the brain. ICER-positive neurons were found in sensory input centers, like the olfactory bulb, or sensory brain stem nuclei, and in hypothalamic nuclei involved in central neuroendocrine control. In addition, neuroendocrine/endocrine transducers, like the pituitary and the pineal gland showed a high basal presence of ICER. Our data show that a basic ICER level is required by many cell systems and can be seen as an anticipatory and/or a protective measure in systems with superior reactive dynamics.
- Pars tuberalis
- Tyrosine hydroxylase