This temporal-ordered causal analysis of secondary data examined impacts of collaborative engagement, chronic health conditions, health and medical services, maltreatment types, and out-of-home placements on health of young children from families participating in the child welfare system. A national sample of 1,087 abused or neglected children (under age 5) was employed. Results suggested that a child's chronic health condition, receiving health and medical services, and receiving emergency medical services lowered the child's health level measured at subsequent interview, but collaborative engagement raised the child's health level measured at subsequent interview. Results identified, moreover, lower next-wave health levels among Hispanic and/or younger children, children cared for by nonbiological parents, and children who lived in lower income families. Implications for policy and intervention are discussed.