Droughts, hydraulic redistribution, and their impact on vegetation composition in the Amazon forest

Guiling Wang, Clement Alo, Rui Mei, Shanshan Sun

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

28 Scopus citations

Abstract

Hydraulic redistribution (HR), the nocturnal transport of moisture by plant roots from wetter to drier portions of the root zone, in general can buffer plants against seasonal water deficits. However, its role in longer droughts and its long-term ecological impact are not well understood. Based on numerical model experiments for the Amazon forest, this modeling study indicates that the impact of HR on plant growth differs between droughts of different time scales. While HR increases transpiration and plant growth during regular dry seasons, it reduces dry season transpiration and net primary productivity (NPP) under extreme droughts such as those during El Niño years in the Amazon forest. This occurs because, in places where soil water storage is not able to sustain the ecosystem through the dry season, the HR-induced acceleration of moisture depletion in the early stage of the dry season reduces water availability for the rest of the dry season and causes soil moisture to reach the wilting point earlier. This gets exacerbated during extreme droughts, which jeopardizes the growth of trees that are not in dry season dormancy, i.e., evergreen trees. As a result, the combination of drought and HR increases the percentage of drought deciduous trees at the expense of evergreen trees, and the fractional coverage of forest canopy is characterized by sudden drops following extreme droughts and slow recovery afterwards. The shift of the tropical forest towards more drought deciduous trees as a result of the combined effects of extreme drought and HR has important implications for how vegetation will respond to future climate changes.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)663-673
Number of pages11
JournalPlant Ecology
Volume212
Issue number4
DOIs
StatePublished - 1 Apr 2011

Keywords

  • Drought
  • Hydraulic redistribution
  • Plant-water relations
  • Vegetation distribution

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