Effects of cognitive feedback components, display format, and elaboration on performance

William K. Balzer, Leslie B. Hammer, Kenneth E. Sumner, Todd R. Birchenough, Sandra Parham Martens, Patrick H. Raymark

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

35 Scopus citations


Balzer, Sulsky, Hammer, and Sumner (1992) demonstrated that task information, rather than cognitive information or functional validity information, is the necessary component of cognitive feedback (CFB). We designed a laboratory experiment to replicate the effects of (CFB) components while jointly investigating the impact of CFB display format and CFB elaboration on performance. Undergraduates (N = 323) were each randomly assigned to a single experimental condition in a 4 × 2 × 2 factorial design which manipulated the CFB components (TI, CI, TI + CI, or TI + CI + FVI), CFB display format (alphanumeric or graphic), and CFB elaboration (typical or augmented). The experimental task, procedures, and dependent measures were identical to Balzer et al. (1992). A main effect of CFB components was found, with results replicating the Balzer et al. findings that task information was necessary for improved performance. The main effects of CFB display format and CFB elaboration, as well as their interactions with each other and the CFB components, had little impact on judgment performance or reactions to feedback. Practical implications of the findings are discussed.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)369-385
Number of pages17
JournalOrganizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes
Issue number3
StatePublished - Jun 1994


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