Light addressable electrochemical (LAE) sensors have seen great utility in the past several years because they enable multiple localized electrochemical measurements to be performed on a single macroscopic electrode, opening up applications in imaging, biosensing, surface patterning, and multiplexing. In this study, we investigated the effects of electrodeposition on the formation of LAE sensors formed between n-Si and electrodeposited Pt. We prepared sensors by electrodepositing Pt onto freshly-etched n-Si under a variety of conditions, varying the Pt precursor concentration, electrodeposition time, supporting electrolyte, and potential waveform. We characterized the sensors using a combination of atomic force microscopy, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, and cyclic voltammetry. This study shows that the electrodeposition parameters have a dramatic impact on the morphology of the electrodeposited surfaces, sensor stability, and sensitivity towards H2O2. Specifically, we observed that continuous Pt films prepared with a higher Pt precursor concentration were more stable and had better linearity, higher sensitivity, and broader dynamic range than those prepared with a lower Pt precursor concentration. The stability and increased H2O2 sensing performance correlate strongly with an increase in the Pt islands which make up the film. These data highlight that the morphology of the metal in semiconductor/metal junction LAE sensors has an impact on important performance metrics like stability and sensitivity. They also demonstrate the need for semiconductor/metal LAE sensors to be studied using micro- and nanoscale imaging techniques in order to more deeply understand their performance characteristics.
- hydrogen peroxide
- light-addressable electrochemical sensor
- photoelectrochemical sensor