Electrophilic fluorination of pyroglutamic acid derivatives

Application of substrate-dependent reactivity and diastereoselectivity to the synthesis of optically active 4-fluoroglutamic acids

David Konas, J. K. Coward

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Abstract

Electrophilic fluorination of enantiomerically pure 2-pyrrolidinones (4) derived from (L)-glutamic acid has been investigated as a method for the synthesis of single stereoisomers of 4-fluorinated glutamic acids. Reaction of the lactam enolate derived from 9 with NFSi results in a completely diastereoselective monofluorination reaction to yield the monocyclic trans-substituted α-fluoro lactam product 21. Unfortunately, a decreased kinetic acidity in 21 and other structurally related monofluorinated products renders them resistant to a second fluorination. In contrast, the bicyclic lactam 12 is readily difluorinated under the standard conditions described to yield the α,α-difluoro lactam 24. The difference in reactivity between the two types of related lactams is attributed mainly to the presence or lack of a steric interaction between the base used for deprotonation and the protecting group present in the pyrrolidinone substrates. This conclusion was reached based on analysis of the X-ray crystal structure of 21, molecular modeling, and experimental evidence. The key intermediates 21 and 24 are converted to (2S,4R)-4-fluoroglutamic acid and (2S)-4,4-difluoroglutamic acid, respectively.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)8831-8842
Number of pages12
JournalJournal of Organic Chemistry
Volume66
Issue number26
DOIs
StatePublished - 28 Dec 2001

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Pyrrolidonecarboxylic Acid
Lactams
Fluorination
Derivatives
Substrates
Glutamates
Pyrrolidinones
Deprotonation
Stereoisomerism
Molecular modeling
Acidity
Glutamic Acid
Crystal structure
4-fluoroglutamic acid
X rays
Kinetics

Cite this

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title = "Electrophilic fluorination of pyroglutamic acid derivatives: Application of substrate-dependent reactivity and diastereoselectivity to the synthesis of optically active 4-fluoroglutamic acids",
abstract = "Electrophilic fluorination of enantiomerically pure 2-pyrrolidinones (4) derived from (L)-glutamic acid has been investigated as a method for the synthesis of single stereoisomers of 4-fluorinated glutamic acids. Reaction of the lactam enolate derived from 9 with NFSi results in a completely diastereoselective monofluorination reaction to yield the monocyclic trans-substituted α-fluoro lactam product 21. Unfortunately, a decreased kinetic acidity in 21 and other structurally related monofluorinated products renders them resistant to a second fluorination. In contrast, the bicyclic lactam 12 is readily difluorinated under the standard conditions described to yield the α,α-difluoro lactam 24. The difference in reactivity between the two types of related lactams is attributed mainly to the presence or lack of a steric interaction between the base used for deprotonation and the protecting group present in the pyrrolidinone substrates. This conclusion was reached based on analysis of the X-ray crystal structure of 21, molecular modeling, and experimental evidence. The key intermediates 21 and 24 are converted to (2S,4R)-4-fluoroglutamic acid and (2S)-4,4-difluoroglutamic acid, respectively.",
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T1 - Electrophilic fluorination of pyroglutamic acid derivatives

T2 - Application of substrate-dependent reactivity and diastereoselectivity to the synthesis of optically active 4-fluoroglutamic acids

AU - Konas, David

AU - Coward, J. K.

PY - 2001/12/28

Y1 - 2001/12/28

N2 - Electrophilic fluorination of enantiomerically pure 2-pyrrolidinones (4) derived from (L)-glutamic acid has been investigated as a method for the synthesis of single stereoisomers of 4-fluorinated glutamic acids. Reaction of the lactam enolate derived from 9 with NFSi results in a completely diastereoselective monofluorination reaction to yield the monocyclic trans-substituted α-fluoro lactam product 21. Unfortunately, a decreased kinetic acidity in 21 and other structurally related monofluorinated products renders them resistant to a second fluorination. In contrast, the bicyclic lactam 12 is readily difluorinated under the standard conditions described to yield the α,α-difluoro lactam 24. The difference in reactivity between the two types of related lactams is attributed mainly to the presence or lack of a steric interaction between the base used for deprotonation and the protecting group present in the pyrrolidinone substrates. This conclusion was reached based on analysis of the X-ray crystal structure of 21, molecular modeling, and experimental evidence. The key intermediates 21 and 24 are converted to (2S,4R)-4-fluoroglutamic acid and (2S)-4,4-difluoroglutamic acid, respectively.

AB - Electrophilic fluorination of enantiomerically pure 2-pyrrolidinones (4) derived from (L)-glutamic acid has been investigated as a method for the synthesis of single stereoisomers of 4-fluorinated glutamic acids. Reaction of the lactam enolate derived from 9 with NFSi results in a completely diastereoselective monofluorination reaction to yield the monocyclic trans-substituted α-fluoro lactam product 21. Unfortunately, a decreased kinetic acidity in 21 and other structurally related monofluorinated products renders them resistant to a second fluorination. In contrast, the bicyclic lactam 12 is readily difluorinated under the standard conditions described to yield the α,α-difluoro lactam 24. The difference in reactivity between the two types of related lactams is attributed mainly to the presence or lack of a steric interaction between the base used for deprotonation and the protecting group present in the pyrrolidinone substrates. This conclusion was reached based on analysis of the X-ray crystal structure of 21, molecular modeling, and experimental evidence. The key intermediates 21 and 24 are converted to (2S,4R)-4-fluoroglutamic acid and (2S)-4,4-difluoroglutamic acid, respectively.

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