Exposure to "Low-Level" Aggression in School: Associations with Aggressive Behavior, Future Expectations, and Perceived Safety

Paul Boxer, Laura Edwards-Leeper, Sara E. Goldstein, Dara Musher-Eizenman, Eric F. Dubow

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

54 Scopus citations


Examined associations with witnessing and being victimized by "low-level" aggressive acts (e.g., pushing, gossip) and three indicators of psychosocial functioning in a sample of 771 elementary school students from one urban and one suburban school district. Results indicated that exposure to low-level aggression appears to relate to psychosocial functioning in ways similar to more severe forms of aggression. Students who were exposed to higher levels of both witnessing and victimization by low-level aggression reported the highest levels of engagement in aggression, the lowest levels of positive expectations for the future, and the lowest levels of perceived safety. Findings are discussed in the context of research on exposure to aggression in general, with suggestions offered for future studies. Implications of the findings for school-based intervention programs are raised.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)691-705
Number of pages15
JournalViolence and Victims
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - Dec 2003


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