Expressions of Sentiments during Code Reviews

Male vs. Female

Rajshakhar Paul, Amiangshu Bosu, Kazi Zakia Sultana

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contributionResearchpeer-review

Abstract

As most of the software development organizations are male-dominated, many female developers encounter negative workplace experiences and report feeling like they 'do not belong'. Exposures to discriminatory expletives or negative critiques from their male colleagues may further exacerbate those feelings. The primary goal of this study is to identify the differences in expressions of sentiments between male and female developers during various software engineering tasks. On this goal, we mined the code review repositories of six popular open source projects. We used a semi-Automated approach leveraging the name as well as multiple social networks to identify the gender of a developer. Using SentiSE, a customized and state-of-The-Art sentiment analysis tool for the software engineering domain, we classify each communication as negative, positive, or neutral. We also compute the frequencies of sentiment words, emoticons, and expletives used by each developer.Our results suggest that the likelihood of using sentiment words, emoticons, and expletives during code reviews varies based on the gender of a developer, as females are significantly less likely to express sentiments than males. Although female developers were more neutral to their male colleagues than to another female, male developers from three out of the six projects were not only writing more frequent negative comments but also withholding positive encouragements from their female counterparts. Our results provide empirical evidence of another factor behind the negative work place experiences encountered by the female developers that may be contributing to the diminishing number of females in the SE industry.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationSANER 2019 - Proceedings of the 2019 IEEE 26th International Conference on Software Analysis, Evolution, and Reengineering
EditorsEmad Shihab, David Lo, Xinyu Wang
PublisherInstitute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc.
Pages26-37
Number of pages12
ISBN (Electronic)9781728105918
DOIs
StatePublished - 15 Mar 2019
Event26th IEEE International Conference on Software Analysis, Evolution, and Reengineering, SANER 2019 - Hangzhou, China
Duration: 24 Feb 201927 Feb 2019

Publication series

NameSANER 2019 - Proceedings of the 2019 IEEE 26th International Conference on Software Analysis, Evolution, and Reengineering

Conference

Conference26th IEEE International Conference on Software Analysis, Evolution, and Reengineering, SANER 2019
CountryChina
CityHangzhou
Period24/02/1927/02/19

Fingerprint

Software engineering
Communication
Industry

Keywords

  • code review
  • discrimination
  • emotion
  • gender bias
  • gender issues
  • sentiment

Cite this

Paul, R., Bosu, A., & Sultana, K. Z. (2019). Expressions of Sentiments during Code Reviews: Male vs. Female. In E. Shihab, D. Lo, & X. Wang (Eds.), SANER 2019 - Proceedings of the 2019 IEEE 26th International Conference on Software Analysis, Evolution, and Reengineering (pp. 26-37). [8667987] (SANER 2019 - Proceedings of the 2019 IEEE 26th International Conference on Software Analysis, Evolution, and Reengineering). Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc.. https://doi.org/10.1109/SANER.2019.8667987
Paul, Rajshakhar ; Bosu, Amiangshu ; Sultana, Kazi Zakia. / Expressions of Sentiments during Code Reviews : Male vs. Female. SANER 2019 - Proceedings of the 2019 IEEE 26th International Conference on Software Analysis, Evolution, and Reengineering. editor / Emad Shihab ; David Lo ; Xinyu Wang. Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc., 2019. pp. 26-37 (SANER 2019 - Proceedings of the 2019 IEEE 26th International Conference on Software Analysis, Evolution, and Reengineering).
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title = "Expressions of Sentiments during Code Reviews: Male vs. Female",
abstract = "As most of the software development organizations are male-dominated, many female developers encounter negative workplace experiences and report feeling like they 'do not belong'. Exposures to discriminatory expletives or negative critiques from their male colleagues may further exacerbate those feelings. The primary goal of this study is to identify the differences in expressions of sentiments between male and female developers during various software engineering tasks. On this goal, we mined the code review repositories of six popular open source projects. We used a semi-Automated approach leveraging the name as well as multiple social networks to identify the gender of a developer. Using SentiSE, a customized and state-of-The-Art sentiment analysis tool for the software engineering domain, we classify each communication as negative, positive, or neutral. We also compute the frequencies of sentiment words, emoticons, and expletives used by each developer.Our results suggest that the likelihood of using sentiment words, emoticons, and expletives during code reviews varies based on the gender of a developer, as females are significantly less likely to express sentiments than males. Although female developers were more neutral to their male colleagues than to another female, male developers from three out of the six projects were not only writing more frequent negative comments but also withholding positive encouragements from their female counterparts. Our results provide empirical evidence of another factor behind the negative work place experiences encountered by the female developers that may be contributing to the diminishing number of females in the SE industry.",
keywords = "code review, discrimination, emotion, gender bias, gender issues, sentiment",
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Paul, R, Bosu, A & Sultana, KZ 2019, Expressions of Sentiments during Code Reviews: Male vs. Female. in E Shihab, D Lo & X Wang (eds), SANER 2019 - Proceedings of the 2019 IEEE 26th International Conference on Software Analysis, Evolution, and Reengineering., 8667987, SANER 2019 - Proceedings of the 2019 IEEE 26th International Conference on Software Analysis, Evolution, and Reengineering, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc., pp. 26-37, 26th IEEE International Conference on Software Analysis, Evolution, and Reengineering, SANER 2019, Hangzhou, China, 24/02/19. https://doi.org/10.1109/SANER.2019.8667987

Expressions of Sentiments during Code Reviews : Male vs. Female. / Paul, Rajshakhar; Bosu, Amiangshu; Sultana, Kazi Zakia.

SANER 2019 - Proceedings of the 2019 IEEE 26th International Conference on Software Analysis, Evolution, and Reengineering. ed. / Emad Shihab; David Lo; Xinyu Wang. Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc., 2019. p. 26-37 8667987 (SANER 2019 - Proceedings of the 2019 IEEE 26th International Conference on Software Analysis, Evolution, and Reengineering).

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contributionResearchpeer-review

TY - GEN

T1 - Expressions of Sentiments during Code Reviews

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AU - Bosu, Amiangshu

AU - Sultana, Kazi Zakia

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N2 - As most of the software development organizations are male-dominated, many female developers encounter negative workplace experiences and report feeling like they 'do not belong'. Exposures to discriminatory expletives or negative critiques from their male colleagues may further exacerbate those feelings. The primary goal of this study is to identify the differences in expressions of sentiments between male and female developers during various software engineering tasks. On this goal, we mined the code review repositories of six popular open source projects. We used a semi-Automated approach leveraging the name as well as multiple social networks to identify the gender of a developer. Using SentiSE, a customized and state-of-The-Art sentiment analysis tool for the software engineering domain, we classify each communication as negative, positive, or neutral. We also compute the frequencies of sentiment words, emoticons, and expletives used by each developer.Our results suggest that the likelihood of using sentiment words, emoticons, and expletives during code reviews varies based on the gender of a developer, as females are significantly less likely to express sentiments than males. Although female developers were more neutral to their male colleagues than to another female, male developers from three out of the six projects were not only writing more frequent negative comments but also withholding positive encouragements from their female counterparts. Our results provide empirical evidence of another factor behind the negative work place experiences encountered by the female developers that may be contributing to the diminishing number of females in the SE industry.

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U2 - 10.1109/SANER.2019.8667987

DO - 10.1109/SANER.2019.8667987

M3 - Conference contribution

T3 - SANER 2019 - Proceedings of the 2019 IEEE 26th International Conference on Software Analysis, Evolution, and Reengineering

SP - 26

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Paul R, Bosu A, Sultana KZ. Expressions of Sentiments during Code Reviews: Male vs. Female. In Shihab E, Lo D, Wang X, editors, SANER 2019 - Proceedings of the 2019 IEEE 26th International Conference on Software Analysis, Evolution, and Reengineering. Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc. 2019. p. 26-37. 8667987. (SANER 2019 - Proceedings of the 2019 IEEE 26th International Conference on Software Analysis, Evolution, and Reengineering). https://doi.org/10.1109/SANER.2019.8667987