Factors affecting sonolytic degradation of sulfamethazine in water

Yu Qiong Gao, Nai Yun Gao, Yang Deng, Jin Shan Gu, Yu Liang Gu, Dong Zhang

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

41 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

In this study, the major factors affecting sonolytic degradation of sulfamethazine (SMT), a typical pharmaceutically active compound, in water were evaluated. The factors tested included two operational parameters (i.e. initial SMT concentration and ultrasonic power), three dissolved gases (i.e. Ar, O 2 and N2), five most frequently found anions in water (NO3-,Cl-,SO42-,HCO3-andBr-), ferrous ion (Fe 2+), and four alcohols (methanol, ethanol, isopropyl alcohol, tert-butyl alcohol). Typically, the degradation rate was increased with the increasing initial SMT concentration and power. The degradation rate was accelerated in the presence of argon or oxygen, but inhibited by nitrogen. Effects of anions on the ultrasonic treatment were species-dependent. The SMT degradation rate was slightly inhibited by NO3-,Cl-,and,SO42- but significantly improved by HCO3-andBr-. The negative effects of alcohols acted as hydroxyl radicals scavengers with the following order: tert-butyl alcohol > isopropyl alcohol > ethanol > methanol. The synergetic effect of ferrous ion was mainly due to production of additional hydroxyl radicals (·OH) through Fenton chemistry. LC/MS/MS analysis indicated that the degradation of SMT by ultrasonic irradiation is mainly ascribed to ·OH oxidation. Of interest, although the SMT could be rapidly degraded by ultrasonic irradiation, the degradation products were rarely mineralized. For example, ∼100% of 180 μM SMT was decomposed, but only 8.31% TOC was reduced, within 2 h at an irradiation frequency of 800 kHz and a power of 100 W. However, the products became much biodegradable (BOD 5/COD was increased from 0.04 to 0.45). Therefore, an aerobic biological treatment may be an appropriate post-treatment to further decompose the SMT degradation products.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1401-1407
Number of pages7
JournalUltrasonics Sonochemistry
Volume20
Issue number6
DOIs
StatePublished - 1 Jan 2013

Fingerprint

Sulfamethazine
degradation
Alcohols
Degradation
Water
Ultrasonics
water
alcohols
tert-Butyl Alcohol
isopropyl alcohol
ultrasonics
hydroxyl radicals
Irradiation
2-Propanol
irradiation
Hydroxyl Radical
Methanol
Ethanol
ethyl alcohol
Negative ions

Keywords

  • Sulfamethazine Sonolytic degradation Operational parameters Additives Products

Cite this

Gao, Yu Qiong ; Gao, Nai Yun ; Deng, Yang ; Gu, Jin Shan ; Gu, Yu Liang ; Zhang, Dong. / Factors affecting sonolytic degradation of sulfamethazine in water. In: Ultrasonics Sonochemistry. 2013 ; Vol. 20, No. 6. pp. 1401-1407.
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abstract = "In this study, the major factors affecting sonolytic degradation of sulfamethazine (SMT), a typical pharmaceutically active compound, in water were evaluated. The factors tested included two operational parameters (i.e. initial SMT concentration and ultrasonic power), three dissolved gases (i.e. Ar, O 2 and N2), five most frequently found anions in water (NO3-,Cl-,SO42-,HCO3-andBr-), ferrous ion (Fe 2+), and four alcohols (methanol, ethanol, isopropyl alcohol, tert-butyl alcohol). Typically, the degradation rate was increased with the increasing initial SMT concentration and power. The degradation rate was accelerated in the presence of argon or oxygen, but inhibited by nitrogen. Effects of anions on the ultrasonic treatment were species-dependent. The SMT degradation rate was slightly inhibited by NO3-,Cl-,and,SO42- but significantly improved by HCO3-andBr-. The negative effects of alcohols acted as hydroxyl radicals scavengers with the following order: tert-butyl alcohol > isopropyl alcohol > ethanol > methanol. The synergetic effect of ferrous ion was mainly due to production of additional hydroxyl radicals (·OH) through Fenton chemistry. LC/MS/MS analysis indicated that the degradation of SMT by ultrasonic irradiation is mainly ascribed to ·OH oxidation. Of interest, although the SMT could be rapidly degraded by ultrasonic irradiation, the degradation products were rarely mineralized. For example, ∼100{\%} of 180 μM SMT was decomposed, but only 8.31{\%} TOC was reduced, within 2 h at an irradiation frequency of 800 kHz and a power of 100 W. However, the products became much biodegradable (BOD 5/COD was increased from 0.04 to 0.45). Therefore, an aerobic biological treatment may be an appropriate post-treatment to further decompose the SMT degradation products.",
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Factors affecting sonolytic degradation of sulfamethazine in water. / Gao, Yu Qiong; Gao, Nai Yun; Deng, Yang; Gu, Jin Shan; Gu, Yu Liang; Zhang, Dong.

In: Ultrasonics Sonochemistry, Vol. 20, No. 6, 01.01.2013, p. 1401-1407.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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AU - Deng, Yang

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N2 - In this study, the major factors affecting sonolytic degradation of sulfamethazine (SMT), a typical pharmaceutically active compound, in water were evaluated. The factors tested included two operational parameters (i.e. initial SMT concentration and ultrasonic power), three dissolved gases (i.e. Ar, O 2 and N2), five most frequently found anions in water (NO3-,Cl-,SO42-,HCO3-andBr-), ferrous ion (Fe 2+), and four alcohols (methanol, ethanol, isopropyl alcohol, tert-butyl alcohol). Typically, the degradation rate was increased with the increasing initial SMT concentration and power. The degradation rate was accelerated in the presence of argon or oxygen, but inhibited by nitrogen. Effects of anions on the ultrasonic treatment were species-dependent. The SMT degradation rate was slightly inhibited by NO3-,Cl-,and,SO42- but significantly improved by HCO3-andBr-. The negative effects of alcohols acted as hydroxyl radicals scavengers with the following order: tert-butyl alcohol > isopropyl alcohol > ethanol > methanol. The synergetic effect of ferrous ion was mainly due to production of additional hydroxyl radicals (·OH) through Fenton chemistry. LC/MS/MS analysis indicated that the degradation of SMT by ultrasonic irradiation is mainly ascribed to ·OH oxidation. Of interest, although the SMT could be rapidly degraded by ultrasonic irradiation, the degradation products were rarely mineralized. For example, ∼100% of 180 μM SMT was decomposed, but only 8.31% TOC was reduced, within 2 h at an irradiation frequency of 800 kHz and a power of 100 W. However, the products became much biodegradable (BOD 5/COD was increased from 0.04 to 0.45). Therefore, an aerobic biological treatment may be an appropriate post-treatment to further decompose the SMT degradation products.

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