Factors Associated with Remote Patient Monitoring Services Provision by Hospitals and Health Care Systems in the United States

Ambrish A. Pandit, Hari Eswaran, Cari A. Bogulski, Maysam Rabbani, Mary Katy Allison, Leah Dawson, Corey J. Hayes

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Purpose: To assess the factors associated with offering remote patient monitoring (RPM) services. Methods: We integrated three datasets: (1) 2019-2020 Area Health Resource Files, (2) 2019 American Community Survey, and (3) 2019 American Hospitals Association annual survey using county Federal Information Processing Standards code to evaluate associations between hospital characteristics and county-level demographic factors with provision of (1) post-discharge, (2) chronic care, (3) other RPM services, and (4) any of these three RPM service categories. These outcomes were analyzed using multi-level, mixed-effects multivariate logistic regression modeling to account for county-level clustering of hospitals. Findings: Among 3,381 hospitals, 1,354 (40.0%) provided any RPM services. Being part of a clinically integrated network (CIN) and private, non-profit (vs. public) ownership were respectively associated with 104.5% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 69.4-146.8%; p < 0.001) and 30.4% (95% CI: 2.5-66.0%; p = 0.031) higher odds of providing any RPM services. Critical access hospital (CAH) designation, for-profit (vs. public) ownership, and location in the South (vs. Northeast) were associated with significantly lowering odds of providing any RPM services by 36.2% (95% CI: 14.2-52.6%; p = 0.003), 70.1% (95% CI: 56.0-79.6%; p < 0.001), and 34.0% (95% CI: 2.8-55.1%; p = 0.035), respectively. Similar trends were found with the various RPM service categories. Conclusions: The factors most associated with provision of any RPM services were hospital-level factors. Specifically, being part of a CIN and private, non-profit ownership had the highest positive associations with offering RPM services whereas location in the South and CAH designation had the strongest negative associations. Further studies are needed to understand the reasons behind these associations.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1014-1026
Number of pages13
JournalTelemedicine and e-Health
Issue number7
StatePublished - 1 Jul 2023


  • American Hospital Association
  • clinically integrated network
  • critical access hospital
  • hospital characteristics
  • remote patient monitoring
  • telemedicine


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