Food group intake and risk of subtypes of esophageal and gastric cancer

Stephanie A. Navarro Silvera, Susan T. Mayne, Harvey Risch, Marilee D. Gammon, Thomas L. Vaughan, Wong Ho Chow, Robert Dubrow, Janet B. Schoenberg, Janet L. Stanford, A. Brian West, Heidrun Rotterdam, William J. Blot, Joseph F. Fraumeni

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

103 Scopus citations


Incidence rates for adenocarcinomas of the esophagus and gastric cardia have been increasing rapidly, while rates for non-cardia gastric adenocarcinoma and esophageal squamous cell carcinoma have declined. We examined food group intake as a risk factor for subtypes of esophageal and gastric cancers in a multicenter, population-based case-control study in Connecticut, New Jersey and western Washington state. Associations between food groups and risk were estimated using adjusted odds ratios (OR), based on increasing intake of one serving per day. Total vegetable intake was associated with decreased risk of esophageal adenocarcinoma (OR = 0.85, 95% CI = 0.75, 0.96). Conversely, total meat intake was associated with increased risk of esophageal adenocarcinoma (OR = 1.43, 95% CI = 1.11, 1.83), gastric cardia adenocarcinoma (OR = 1.37, 95% CI = 1.08, 1.73) and noncardia gastric adenocarcinoma (OR = 1.39, 95% CI = 1.12, 1.71), with red meat most strongly associated with esophageal adenocarcinoma risk (OR = 2.49, 95% CI = 1.39, 4.46). Poultry was most strongly associated with gastric cardia adenocarcinoma (OR = 1.89, 95% CI = 1.15, 3.11) and noncardia gastric adenocarcinoma (OR = 1.90, 95% CI = 1.19, 3.03). High-fat dairy was associated with increased risk of both esophageal and gastric cardia adenocarcinoma. Higher intake of meats, particularly red meats, and lower intake of vegetables were associated with an increased risk of esophageal adenocarcinoma, while higher intake of meats, particularly poultry, and high-fat dairy was associated with increased risk of gastric cardia adenocarcinoma.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)852-860
Number of pages9
JournalInternational Journal of Cancer
Issue number4
StatePublished - 15 Aug 2008


  • Case-control
  • Esophageal neoplasms
  • Food groups
  • Gastric neoplasms


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