Formation of chloroform during chlorination of alanine in drinking water

Wen Hai Chu, Nai Yun Gao, Yang Deng, Bing Zhi Dong

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

40 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Currently, dissolved nitrogenous organic matters in water, important precursors of disinfection by-products (DBPs), are of significant concern. This study was to explore the formation of chloroform (CF) during chlorination of alanine (Ala), an important nitrogenous organic compound commonly present in water sources. Our results indicated that the CF yield reached a maximum value of 0.143% at the molar ratio of chlorine atom to nitrogen atom (Cl/N) = 1.0 over a Cl/N range of 0.2-5.0 (pH = 7.0, reaction time = 5 d, and initial Ala = 0.1 mM). At an acidic-neutral condition (pH 4-7), the formation of CF was suppressed. However, the highest CF yield (0.227%) occurred at weakly alkaline condition (pH 8.0) (initial Ala = 0.1 mM, and Cl/N = 1.0). The increase of Br- in water can increase total trihalomethanes (THMs) and bromo-THMs. However, the bromo-THMs level reached a plateau at Br-/Cl > 0.04. Finally, based on the computation of frontier electron density and identification and measurement of key intermediates during Ala chlorination, we proposed a formation pathway of CF from Ala chlorination: Ala → monochloro-N-alanine (MC-N-Ala) → acetaldehyde (AAld) → monochloroacetaldehyde acetaldehyde (MCAld) → dichloroacetaldehyde (DCAld) → trichloroacetaldehyde (TCAld) → CF.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1346-1351
Number of pages6
JournalChemosphere
Volume77
Issue number10
DOIs
StatePublished - 1 Nov 2009

Fingerprint

Chlorination
Chloroform
chloroform
chlorination
Drinking Water
Alanine
drinking water
Trihalomethanes
acetaldehyde
Acetaldehyde
Water
Atoms
Disinfection
Chlorine
disinfection
water
electron density
chlorine
organic compound
Organic compounds

Keywords

  • Alanine
  • Disinfection by-products
  • Dissolved organic nitrogen
  • Formation pathway
  • Trihalomethanes

Cite this

Chu, Wen Hai ; Gao, Nai Yun ; Deng, Yang ; Dong, Bing Zhi. / Formation of chloroform during chlorination of alanine in drinking water. In: Chemosphere. 2009 ; Vol. 77, No. 10. pp. 1346-1351.
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abstract = "Currently, dissolved nitrogenous organic matters in water, important precursors of disinfection by-products (DBPs), are of significant concern. This study was to explore the formation of chloroform (CF) during chlorination of alanine (Ala), an important nitrogenous organic compound commonly present in water sources. Our results indicated that the CF yield reached a maximum value of 0.143{\%} at the molar ratio of chlorine atom to nitrogen atom (Cl/N) = 1.0 over a Cl/N range of 0.2-5.0 (pH = 7.0, reaction time = 5 d, and initial Ala = 0.1 mM). At an acidic-neutral condition (pH 4-7), the formation of CF was suppressed. However, the highest CF yield (0.227{\%}) occurred at weakly alkaline condition (pH 8.0) (initial Ala = 0.1 mM, and Cl/N = 1.0). The increase of Br- in water can increase total trihalomethanes (THMs) and bromo-THMs. However, the bromo-THMs level reached a plateau at Br-/Cl > 0.04. Finally, based on the computation of frontier electron density and identification and measurement of key intermediates during Ala chlorination, we proposed a formation pathway of CF from Ala chlorination: Ala → monochloro-N-alanine (MC-N-Ala) → acetaldehyde (AAld) → monochloroacetaldehyde acetaldehyde (MCAld) → dichloroacetaldehyde (DCAld) → trichloroacetaldehyde (TCAld) → CF.",
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Formation of chloroform during chlorination of alanine in drinking water. / Chu, Wen Hai; Gao, Nai Yun; Deng, Yang; Dong, Bing Zhi.

In: Chemosphere, Vol. 77, No. 10, 01.11.2009, p. 1346-1351.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

TY - JOUR

T1 - Formation of chloroform during chlorination of alanine in drinking water

AU - Chu, Wen Hai

AU - Gao, Nai Yun

AU - Deng, Yang

AU - Dong, Bing Zhi

PY - 2009/11/1

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N2 - Currently, dissolved nitrogenous organic matters in water, important precursors of disinfection by-products (DBPs), are of significant concern. This study was to explore the formation of chloroform (CF) during chlorination of alanine (Ala), an important nitrogenous organic compound commonly present in water sources. Our results indicated that the CF yield reached a maximum value of 0.143% at the molar ratio of chlorine atom to nitrogen atom (Cl/N) = 1.0 over a Cl/N range of 0.2-5.0 (pH = 7.0, reaction time = 5 d, and initial Ala = 0.1 mM). At an acidic-neutral condition (pH 4-7), the formation of CF was suppressed. However, the highest CF yield (0.227%) occurred at weakly alkaline condition (pH 8.0) (initial Ala = 0.1 mM, and Cl/N = 1.0). The increase of Br- in water can increase total trihalomethanes (THMs) and bromo-THMs. However, the bromo-THMs level reached a plateau at Br-/Cl > 0.04. Finally, based on the computation of frontier electron density and identification and measurement of key intermediates during Ala chlorination, we proposed a formation pathway of CF from Ala chlorination: Ala → monochloro-N-alanine (MC-N-Ala) → acetaldehyde (AAld) → monochloroacetaldehyde acetaldehyde (MCAld) → dichloroacetaldehyde (DCAld) → trichloroacetaldehyde (TCAld) → CF.

AB - Currently, dissolved nitrogenous organic matters in water, important precursors of disinfection by-products (DBPs), are of significant concern. This study was to explore the formation of chloroform (CF) during chlorination of alanine (Ala), an important nitrogenous organic compound commonly present in water sources. Our results indicated that the CF yield reached a maximum value of 0.143% at the molar ratio of chlorine atom to nitrogen atom (Cl/N) = 1.0 over a Cl/N range of 0.2-5.0 (pH = 7.0, reaction time = 5 d, and initial Ala = 0.1 mM). At an acidic-neutral condition (pH 4-7), the formation of CF was suppressed. However, the highest CF yield (0.227%) occurred at weakly alkaline condition (pH 8.0) (initial Ala = 0.1 mM, and Cl/N = 1.0). The increase of Br- in water can increase total trihalomethanes (THMs) and bromo-THMs. However, the bromo-THMs level reached a plateau at Br-/Cl > 0.04. Finally, based on the computation of frontier electron density and identification and measurement of key intermediates during Ala chlorination, we proposed a formation pathway of CF from Ala chlorination: Ala → monochloro-N-alanine (MC-N-Ala) → acetaldehyde (AAld) → monochloroacetaldehyde acetaldehyde (MCAld) → dichloroacetaldehyde (DCAld) → trichloroacetaldehyde (TCAld) → CF.

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KW - Disinfection by-products

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