Gendered Racial Microaggressions Scale: Measurement Invariance Across Sexual Orientation

Sara Matsuzaka, Laura Jamison, Lanice R. Avery, Karen M. Schmidt, Alexis G. Stanton, Katrina Debnam

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

5 Scopus citations


Gendered racial microaggressions are often assessed using the Gendered Racial Microaggressions Scale. Despite its use with mixed samples of heterosexual and sexual minority Black women, this instrument has yet to be evaluated for its measurement invariance across sexual orientation. This study evaluated the measurement invariance of the Gendered Racial Microaggressions Scale across sexual orientation (heterosexual [n = 1,147] versus lesbian, gay, or bisexual [LGB], n = 359) in a sample of 1,506 Black cisgender women ages 18–30 years old. The Gendered Racial Microaggressions Scale's four-factor structure, including Beauty and Sexual Objectification, Silenced and Marginalized, Strong Black Woman, and Angry Black Woman, was replicated with our sample. Results from the multigroup confirmatory factor analysis indicated the Gendered Racial Microaggressions Scale had configural, metric, and scalar invariance across sexual orientation groups. Strict invariance was not established. Multi-group comparison of latent factor mean scores revealed Black LGB women as having higher Beauty and Sexual Objectification scores than Black heterosexual women on the Gendered Racial Microaggressions stress appraisal scale. The Gendered Racial Microaggressions Scale can be recommended in meaningfully assessing differences in latent factor mean scores among Black heterosexual and LGB women. Practitioners, researchers, and policy makers should seek to address the role of intersectional microaggressions in the lived experiences of sexual and gender minorities of color, including as it relates to systemic disadvantage and health, mental health, and social disparities.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)518-530
Number of pages13
JournalPsychology of Women Quarterly
Issue number4
StatePublished - Dec 2022


  • LGB issues
  • intersectionality
  • measure and assessment development
  • microaggressions
  • women of color


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