Genetic analysis reveals strong phylogeographical divergences within the Scarlet Macaw Ara macao

Kari L. Schmidt, Matthew Aardema, George Amato

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

Abstract

Scarlet Macaws Ara macao have the largest geographical distribution of any Neotropical psittacine, occupying a variety of lowland forest habitats from Mexico to Brazil. Two subspecies, Ara macao macao and Ara macao cyanoptera, are currently recognized based on wing chord length and plumage coloration, with formal descriptions suggesting genetic introgression in southern Nicaragua and northern Costa Rica. The present study aimed to investigate the extent of genetic diversification within A. macao by analysing mitochondrial sequence data from contemporary and historical samples. Phylogenetic reconstruction and population aggregation analysis confirmed two distinct phylogeographical groups, with a high degree of intraspecific genetic structure and no evidence of a putative hybrid zone. Whole mitochondrial genome sequencing further confirmed substantial divergence (~ 1.8%) between the cyanoptera and macao lineages. These results demonstrate a separation of A. macao into two distinct evolutionary entities and highlight a non-uniform distribution of intraspecific diversity, suggesting current conservation designations may warrant re-evaluation.

Original languageEnglish
JournalIbis
DOIs
StatePublished - 1 Jan 2019

Fingerprint

Macau
genetic analysis
genetic techniques and protocols
divergence
hybrid zone
plumage
introgression
geographical distribution
genetic structure
subspecies
genome
phylogenetics
Nicaragua
parrots
lowland forests
forest habitats
habitat
Costa Rica
Mexico
Brazil

Keywords

  • Neotropics
  • conservation
  • mitochondrial DNA
  • museum specimens

Cite this

@article{d9e2c886e7e146fba8ce3ae987f5599f,
title = "Genetic analysis reveals strong phylogeographical divergences within the Scarlet Macaw Ara macao",
abstract = "Scarlet Macaws Ara macao have the largest geographical distribution of any Neotropical psittacine, occupying a variety of lowland forest habitats from Mexico to Brazil. Two subspecies, Ara macao macao and Ara macao cyanoptera, are currently recognized based on wing chord length and plumage coloration, with formal descriptions suggesting genetic introgression in southern Nicaragua and northern Costa Rica. The present study aimed to investigate the extent of genetic diversification within A. macao by analysing mitochondrial sequence data from contemporary and historical samples. Phylogenetic reconstruction and population aggregation analysis confirmed two distinct phylogeographical groups, with a high degree of intraspecific genetic structure and no evidence of a putative hybrid zone. Whole mitochondrial genome sequencing further confirmed substantial divergence (~ 1.8{\%}) between the cyanoptera and macao lineages. These results demonstrate a separation of A. macao into two distinct evolutionary entities and highlight a non-uniform distribution of intraspecific diversity, suggesting current conservation designations may warrant re-evaluation.",
keywords = "Neotropics, conservation, mitochondrial DNA, museum specimens",
author = "Schmidt, {Kari L.} and Matthew Aardema and George Amato",
year = "2019",
month = "1",
day = "1",
doi = "10.1111/ibi.12760",
language = "English",
journal = "Ibis",
issn = "0019-1019",

}

Genetic analysis reveals strong phylogeographical divergences within the Scarlet Macaw Ara macao. / Schmidt, Kari L.; Aardema, Matthew; Amato, George.

In: Ibis, 01.01.2019.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - Genetic analysis reveals strong phylogeographical divergences within the Scarlet Macaw Ara macao

AU - Schmidt, Kari L.

AU - Aardema, Matthew

AU - Amato, George

PY - 2019/1/1

Y1 - 2019/1/1

N2 - Scarlet Macaws Ara macao have the largest geographical distribution of any Neotropical psittacine, occupying a variety of lowland forest habitats from Mexico to Brazil. Two subspecies, Ara macao macao and Ara macao cyanoptera, are currently recognized based on wing chord length and plumage coloration, with formal descriptions suggesting genetic introgression in southern Nicaragua and northern Costa Rica. The present study aimed to investigate the extent of genetic diversification within A. macao by analysing mitochondrial sequence data from contemporary and historical samples. Phylogenetic reconstruction and population aggregation analysis confirmed two distinct phylogeographical groups, with a high degree of intraspecific genetic structure and no evidence of a putative hybrid zone. Whole mitochondrial genome sequencing further confirmed substantial divergence (~ 1.8%) between the cyanoptera and macao lineages. These results demonstrate a separation of A. macao into two distinct evolutionary entities and highlight a non-uniform distribution of intraspecific diversity, suggesting current conservation designations may warrant re-evaluation.

AB - Scarlet Macaws Ara macao have the largest geographical distribution of any Neotropical psittacine, occupying a variety of lowland forest habitats from Mexico to Brazil. Two subspecies, Ara macao macao and Ara macao cyanoptera, are currently recognized based on wing chord length and plumage coloration, with formal descriptions suggesting genetic introgression in southern Nicaragua and northern Costa Rica. The present study aimed to investigate the extent of genetic diversification within A. macao by analysing mitochondrial sequence data from contemporary and historical samples. Phylogenetic reconstruction and population aggregation analysis confirmed two distinct phylogeographical groups, with a high degree of intraspecific genetic structure and no evidence of a putative hybrid zone. Whole mitochondrial genome sequencing further confirmed substantial divergence (~ 1.8%) between the cyanoptera and macao lineages. These results demonstrate a separation of A. macao into two distinct evolutionary entities and highlight a non-uniform distribution of intraspecific diversity, suggesting current conservation designations may warrant re-evaluation.

KW - Neotropics

KW - conservation

KW - mitochondrial DNA

KW - museum specimens

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=85069898701&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1111/ibi.12760

DO - 10.1111/ibi.12760

M3 - Article

JO - Ibis

JF - Ibis

SN - 0019-1019

ER -