Despite recent progress in crop genomics studies, the genomic changes brought about by modern breeding selection are still poorly understood, thus hampering genomics-assisted breeding, especially in polyploid crops with compound genomes such as common wheat (Triticum aestivum). In this work, we constructed genome resources for the modern elite common wheat variety Aikang 58 (AK58). Comparative genomics between AK58 and the landrace cultivar Chinese Spring (CS) shed light on genomic changes that occurred through recent varietal improvement. We also explored subgenome diploidization and divergence in common wheat and developed a homoeologous locus–based genome-wide association study (HGWAS) approach, which was more effective than single homoeolog–based GWAS in unraveling agronomic trait–associated loci. A total of 123 major HGWAS loci were detected using a genetic population derived from AK58 and CS. Elite homoeologous haplotypes (HHs), formed by combinations of subgenomic homoeologs of the associated loci, were found in both parents and progeny, and many could substantially improve wheat yield and related traits. We built a website where users can download genome assembly sequence and annotation data for AK58, perform blast analysis, and run JBrowse. Our work enriches genome resources for wheat, provides new insights into genomic changes during modern wheat improvement, and suggests that efficient mining of elite HHs can make a substantial contribution to genomics-assisted breeding in common wheat and other polyploid crops.
- common wheat
- genome sequencing
- homoeologous haplotypes
- homoeologous locus–based GWAS
- polyploid crops
- subgenome diploidization and divergence