Heat-activated persulfate oxidation of sulfamethoxazole in water

Yu Qiong Gao, Nai Yun Gao, Yang Deng, Da Qiang Yin, Yan Sen Zhang, Wen Lei Rong, Sheng Dong Zhou

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

17 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Heat-activated persulfate to produce highly reactive sulfate radicals (Formula presented.) to oxidize sulfamethoxazole (SMX) in water was studied. The SMX degradation rate was significantly influenced by the reaction temperature, persulfate dose, initial pH, and co-existing anions. Higher temperature achieved higher degradation rate. The calculated activation energy for hot persulfate oxidation of SMX was approximately 130.93 kJ/mol. The degradation rate constant was proportional to the persulfate dose. An alkaline condition favored the SMX degradation. Effects of anions on the SMX degradation were species-dependent. Cl, (Formula presented.) , and (Formula presented.) inhibited the SMX degradation, to different degrees. In contrast, (Formula presented.) accelerated the treatment. The SMX decomposition was associated with hydroxylation, sulfonamide bond breakage, and oxidation of the amine groups. Toxicity tests revealed production of more toxic products. Therefore, appropriate post-treatments need to be considered to address the undesirable byproducts.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2225-2233
Number of pages9
JournalDesalination and Water Treatment
Volume56
Issue number8
DOIs
StatePublished - 1 Jan 2015

Fingerprint

oxidation
Degradation
Oxidation
degradation
Water
water
anion
Negative ions
Hydroxylation
breakage
toxicity test
activation energy
Byproducts
Toxicity
Hot Temperature
Amines
Rate constants
Activation energy
decomposition
sulfate

Keywords

  • Factors
  • Heat-activated persulfate
  • Mechanism
  • Products
  • Sulfamethoxazole
  • Toxicity

Cite this

Gao, Y. Q., Gao, N. Y., Deng, Y., Yin, D. Q., Zhang, Y. S., Rong, W. L., & Zhou, S. D. (2015). Heat-activated persulfate oxidation of sulfamethoxazole in water. Desalination and Water Treatment, 56(8), 2225-2233. https://doi.org/10.1080/19443994.2014.960471
Gao, Yu Qiong ; Gao, Nai Yun ; Deng, Yang ; Yin, Da Qiang ; Zhang, Yan Sen ; Rong, Wen Lei ; Zhou, Sheng Dong. / Heat-activated persulfate oxidation of sulfamethoxazole in water. In: Desalination and Water Treatment. 2015 ; Vol. 56, No. 8. pp. 2225-2233.
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Gao, YQ, Gao, NY, Deng, Y, Yin, DQ, Zhang, YS, Rong, WL & Zhou, SD 2015, 'Heat-activated persulfate oxidation of sulfamethoxazole in water', Desalination and Water Treatment, vol. 56, no. 8, pp. 2225-2233. https://doi.org/10.1080/19443994.2014.960471

Heat-activated persulfate oxidation of sulfamethoxazole in water. / Gao, Yu Qiong; Gao, Nai Yun; Deng, Yang; Yin, Da Qiang; Zhang, Yan Sen; Rong, Wen Lei; Zhou, Sheng Dong.

In: Desalination and Water Treatment, Vol. 56, No. 8, 01.01.2015, p. 2225-2233.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

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AU - Gao, Yu Qiong

AU - Gao, Nai Yun

AU - Deng, Yang

AU - Yin, Da Qiang

AU - Zhang, Yan Sen

AU - Rong, Wen Lei

AU - Zhou, Sheng Dong

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N2 - Heat-activated persulfate to produce highly reactive sulfate radicals (Formula presented.) to oxidize sulfamethoxazole (SMX) in water was studied. The SMX degradation rate was significantly influenced by the reaction temperature, persulfate dose, initial pH, and co-existing anions. Higher temperature achieved higher degradation rate. The calculated activation energy for hot persulfate oxidation of SMX was approximately 130.93 kJ/mol. The degradation rate constant was proportional to the persulfate dose. An alkaline condition favored the SMX degradation. Effects of anions on the SMX degradation were species-dependent. Cl−, (Formula presented.) , and (Formula presented.) inhibited the SMX degradation, to different degrees. In contrast, (Formula presented.) accelerated the treatment. The SMX decomposition was associated with hydroxylation, sulfonamide bond breakage, and oxidation of the amine groups. Toxicity tests revealed production of more toxic products. Therefore, appropriate post-treatments need to be considered to address the undesirable byproducts.

AB - Heat-activated persulfate to produce highly reactive sulfate radicals (Formula presented.) to oxidize sulfamethoxazole (SMX) in water was studied. The SMX degradation rate was significantly influenced by the reaction temperature, persulfate dose, initial pH, and co-existing anions. Higher temperature achieved higher degradation rate. The calculated activation energy for hot persulfate oxidation of SMX was approximately 130.93 kJ/mol. The degradation rate constant was proportional to the persulfate dose. An alkaline condition favored the SMX degradation. Effects of anions on the SMX degradation were species-dependent. Cl−, (Formula presented.) , and (Formula presented.) inhibited the SMX degradation, to different degrees. In contrast, (Formula presented.) accelerated the treatment. The SMX decomposition was associated with hydroxylation, sulfonamide bond breakage, and oxidation of the amine groups. Toxicity tests revealed production of more toxic products. Therefore, appropriate post-treatments need to be considered to address the undesirable byproducts.

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