Heavy metal contamination in western Xiamen Bay sediments and its vicinity, China

Luoping Zhang, Xin Ye, Huan Feng, Youhai Jing, Tong Ouyang, Xingtian Yu, Rongyuan Liang, Chengtie Gao, Weiqi Chen

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433 Scopus citations


Concentrations of selected heavy metals (Cu, Pb, Zn, Cd, Cr, Ni and Fe) in surface sediments from nine sites in western Xiamen Bay and its vicinity were studied in order to understand current metal contamination due to urbanization and economic development in Xiamen, China. The sediment samples were collected in December 2004 and July 2005 respectively in order to examine temporal variations. In this study, we found that heavy metal concentrations in surface sediments sampled in the western Xiamen Bay and adjacent Maluan Bay and Yuandang Lagoon varied from 19 to 97 mg kg-1 for Cu, 45 to 60 mg kg-1 for Pb, 65 to 223 mg kg-1 for Zn, 0.11 to 1.01 mg kg-1 for Cd, 37 to 134 mg kg-1 for Cr, 25 to 65 mg kg-1 for Ni and 3.08 to 4.81% for Fe. Although all metal concentrations in sediments meets Chinese National Standard Criteria for Marine Sediment Quality, both metal enrichment factors (EF) and geoaccumulation index (Igeo) show that Pb contamination exists in the entire study area and contamination of other metals are also present in some locations depending on the sources, of which sewage outlets and commercial ports are the main sources of contaminants to the area. This study shows that using the sediment quality standard criteria only to assess sediments cannot properly reflect sediment contamination. A multiple approaches should be applied for the sediment quality assessment.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)974-982
Number of pages9
JournalMarine Pollution Bulletin
Issue number7
StatePublished - Jul 2007


  • Contamination
  • Heavy metals
  • Sediment
  • Sediment quality criteria
  • Sewage sludge
  • Xiamen Bay


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