About half a billion people worldwide are infected with herpes simplex virus-2 (HSV-2). Prolonged treatment with acyclovir (ACV) and its analogs leads to the development of resistant strains. The aim of this study was to investigate the antiviral potential of epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) from Camellia sinensis and a stable analog EGCG-stearate (EGCG-S) against HSV-2 in cultured Vero cells. Cell viability and cell proliferation assays were used to determine the non-cytotoxic concentrations on cultured Vero cells. HSV-2 with a green fluorescent protein (GFP) fusion protein of VP26 virions were treated with non-cytotoxic concentrations of EGCG and EGCG-S. The effects on infectivity and mechanisms were determined by plaque assay, attachment and penetration assays, confocal microscopy, qPCR, and in silico modeling analysis. Our results demonstrate that treatment of HSV-2 virions with EGCG and EGCG-S at a concentration of 75 µM showed greater than 99.9% inhibition by inhibiting the attachment of HSV-2 virions to host cells. The bioinformatic analysis indicated high binding affinity of EGCG-S for glycoprotein D; thus EGCG-S may block fusion of HSV-2 and the cell membrane, preventing entry of HSV-2 into the cell.
|State||Published - Jul 2022|