Independent and interdependent self-construals, individualism, collectivism, and harmony control in African Americans

Madonna G. Constantine, Kathy A. Gainor, Muninder Ahluwalia, La Verne A. Berkel

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

29 Scopus citations


The authors investigated the relationships among independent and interdependent self-construals (i.e., self-conceptualizations), dimensions of individualism and collectivism, and aspects of harmony control (i.e., the degree to which individuals are flexible in recognizing that their personal power stems from spiritual, social, and contextual forces) in a sample of 240 African American community college students. Results revealed that independent and interdependent selfconstruals and dimensions of individualism and collectivism were differentially related to various harmony control dimensions. Implications of the findings are discussed.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)87-101
Number of pages15
JournalJournal of Black Psychology
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 1 Dec 2003



  • Black Americans
  • Collectivism
  • Harmony control
  • Individualism
  • Self-construal

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