International Adoption: Counseling and the Adoption Triad

Amanda L. Baden, Judith L. Gibbons, Samantha L. Wilson, Hollee McGinnis

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

33 Scopus citations


Despite a 60-plus-year history of international adoption (IA) placements, the body of research exploring counseling and psychological interventions for those affected by IA is still in its infancy. This critical review of the state of the literature addresses research, theory, and practice relevant to the international adoption triad (adoptive parents, birth parents, and adoptees). We highlight the lack of empirical attention to the clinical needs of birth parents, the tendency to overlook the clinical needs of adoptive parents both pre- and post-adoption, early childhood vulnerability in international adoptees, and adolescent identity challenges and the attendant clinical issues.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)218-237
Number of pages20
JournalAdoption Quarterly
Issue number3-4
StatePublished - Jul 2013


  • adopted person
  • adoptive parents
  • birth parents
  • counseling
  • international adoption
  • psychotherapy
  • transracial adoption


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