Longitudinal invariance of the center for epidemiologic studies-depression scale among girls and boys in middle school

Robert W. Motl, Rod K. Dishman, Amanda Birnbaum, Leslie A. Lytle

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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This study tested the longitudinal factorial invariance of a theoretically consistent, higher-order model for Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression (CES-D) scores among adolescent girls and boys in middle school. Data were collected from 2,416 adolescents who completed a survey containing the CES-D in the fall of 1998, spring of 1999, and spring of 2000. The invariance analyses were conducted using LISREL 8.50 with maximum likelihood estimation and the Satorra-Bentler scaled chi-square statistic and standard errors. The higher-order model demonstrated longitudinal, as well as gender, invariance of the overall factor structure and first- and second-order structure coefficients, first-order factor variances, second-order factor variances and covariances, and item uniquenesses. The results demonstrate that meaningful comparisons of composite CES-D scores can be made across time among girls and boys in middle school.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)90-108
Number of pages19
JournalEducational and Psychological Measurement
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jan 2005



  • Adolescence
  • CES-D
  • Depression
  • Factorial validity
  • Measurement invariance

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