Metal contamination and filtering in soil from an iron (magnetite) mine-smelter complex in the critical Hudson Highlands watershed, New York

Sivajini Gilchrist, Alexander E. Gates, Matthew Gorring, Evert Jan Elzinga

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

2 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Organic material in metal contaminated soils around an abandoned magnetite mine-smelter complex in the critical Highlands watershed protects the groundwater and surface water from contamination. Metals in these waters were consistently below local and national water standards. Two groups of soil types cover the area: (1) Group A disturbed metal-rich soils, and (2) Group B undisturbed organic soils. Chromium and nickel were more elevated than other metals with Cr more widespread than Ni. In Group A, Cr correlated strongly with sesquioxides in the lower horizons (Fe2O3: r = 0.74, p < 0.025; Al2O3: r = 0.92, p < 0.005). In Group B, Cr correlated strongly (r = 0.96, p < 0.005) with soil organic matter (SOM) in the O-horizons. Ni-Cr (Group A: 52 and 70% in O- and lower horizons, respectively; Group B: ~100% in both horizons) and V-Cr correlations (78% only in Group A lower horizons) suggest similar retention mechanisms for these elements. Average soil pHCaCl2or both groups ranged between 3.65 and 5.91, suggesting that soil acidity is determined by organic acids and solubility of Al3+ releasing H+ ions. SOM and sesquioxides contribute significantly to creating naturally occurring filtration systems, removing metals, and protecting water quality. High Ca, Fe, and Ti in Group A soils suggest slag and ash were mixed into the soils. Some low-Cr sources include magnetite, slag, and ash (100, 100 and 200 mg/kg, respectively). Constant ZrO2:TiO2 ratios in the lower soils indicate soil formation from breakdown of underlying tailing rocks, contributing Cr to these layers.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1029-1041
Number of pages13
JournalEnvironmental Earth Sciences
Volume63
Issue number5
DOIs
StatePublished - 1 Jul 2011

Fingerprint

Ferrosoferric Oxide
magnetite
Magnetite
Watersheds
highlands
Contamination
Iron
Metals
metals
watershed
iron
Soils
sesquioxides
metal
slags
soil
slag
Ashes
soil organic matter
ash

Keywords

  • Ash
  • Chromium
  • Metal contamination
  • Slag
  • Soil organic matter

Cite this

@article{c4ea1ae201b145769f04caeff804eaca,
title = "Metal contamination and filtering in soil from an iron (magnetite) mine-smelter complex in the critical Hudson Highlands watershed, New York",
abstract = "Organic material in metal contaminated soils around an abandoned magnetite mine-smelter complex in the critical Highlands watershed protects the groundwater and surface water from contamination. Metals in these waters were consistently below local and national water standards. Two groups of soil types cover the area: (1) Group A disturbed metal-rich soils, and (2) Group B undisturbed organic soils. Chromium and nickel were more elevated than other metals with Cr more widespread than Ni. In Group A, Cr correlated strongly with sesquioxides in the lower horizons (Fe2O3: r = 0.74, p < 0.025; Al2O3: r = 0.92, p < 0.005). In Group B, Cr correlated strongly (r = 0.96, p < 0.005) with soil organic matter (SOM) in the O-horizons. Ni-Cr (Group A: 52 and 70{\%} in O- and lower horizons, respectively; Group B: ~100{\%} in both horizons) and V-Cr correlations (78{\%} only in Group A lower horizons) suggest similar retention mechanisms for these elements. Average soil pHCaCl2or both groups ranged between 3.65 and 5.91, suggesting that soil acidity is determined by organic acids and solubility of Al3+ releasing H+ ions. SOM and sesquioxides contribute significantly to creating naturally occurring filtration systems, removing metals, and protecting water quality. High Ca, Fe, and Ti in Group A soils suggest slag and ash were mixed into the soils. Some low-Cr sources include magnetite, slag, and ash (100, 100 and 200 mg/kg, respectively). Constant ZrO2:TiO2 ratios in the lower soils indicate soil formation from breakdown of underlying tailing rocks, contributing Cr to these layers.",
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Metal contamination and filtering in soil from an iron (magnetite) mine-smelter complex in the critical Hudson Highlands watershed, New York. / Gilchrist, Sivajini; Gates, Alexander E.; Gorring, Matthew; Elzinga, Evert Jan.

In: Environmental Earth Sciences, Vol. 63, No. 5, 01.07.2011, p. 1029-1041.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - Metal contamination and filtering in soil from an iron (magnetite) mine-smelter complex in the critical Hudson Highlands watershed, New York

AU - Gilchrist, Sivajini

AU - Gates, Alexander E.

AU - Gorring, Matthew

AU - Elzinga, Evert Jan

PY - 2011/7/1

Y1 - 2011/7/1

N2 - Organic material in metal contaminated soils around an abandoned magnetite mine-smelter complex in the critical Highlands watershed protects the groundwater and surface water from contamination. Metals in these waters were consistently below local and national water standards. Two groups of soil types cover the area: (1) Group A disturbed metal-rich soils, and (2) Group B undisturbed organic soils. Chromium and nickel were more elevated than other metals with Cr more widespread than Ni. In Group A, Cr correlated strongly with sesquioxides in the lower horizons (Fe2O3: r = 0.74, p < 0.025; Al2O3: r = 0.92, p < 0.005). In Group B, Cr correlated strongly (r = 0.96, p < 0.005) with soil organic matter (SOM) in the O-horizons. Ni-Cr (Group A: 52 and 70% in O- and lower horizons, respectively; Group B: ~100% in both horizons) and V-Cr correlations (78% only in Group A lower horizons) suggest similar retention mechanisms for these elements. Average soil pHCaCl2or both groups ranged between 3.65 and 5.91, suggesting that soil acidity is determined by organic acids and solubility of Al3+ releasing H+ ions. SOM and sesquioxides contribute significantly to creating naturally occurring filtration systems, removing metals, and protecting water quality. High Ca, Fe, and Ti in Group A soils suggest slag and ash were mixed into the soils. Some low-Cr sources include magnetite, slag, and ash (100, 100 and 200 mg/kg, respectively). Constant ZrO2:TiO2 ratios in the lower soils indicate soil formation from breakdown of underlying tailing rocks, contributing Cr to these layers.

AB - Organic material in metal contaminated soils around an abandoned magnetite mine-smelter complex in the critical Highlands watershed protects the groundwater and surface water from contamination. Metals in these waters were consistently below local and national water standards. Two groups of soil types cover the area: (1) Group A disturbed metal-rich soils, and (2) Group B undisturbed organic soils. Chromium and nickel were more elevated than other metals with Cr more widespread than Ni. In Group A, Cr correlated strongly with sesquioxides in the lower horizons (Fe2O3: r = 0.74, p < 0.025; Al2O3: r = 0.92, p < 0.005). In Group B, Cr correlated strongly (r = 0.96, p < 0.005) with soil organic matter (SOM) in the O-horizons. Ni-Cr (Group A: 52 and 70% in O- and lower horizons, respectively; Group B: ~100% in both horizons) and V-Cr correlations (78% only in Group A lower horizons) suggest similar retention mechanisms for these elements. Average soil pHCaCl2or both groups ranged between 3.65 and 5.91, suggesting that soil acidity is determined by organic acids and solubility of Al3+ releasing H+ ions. SOM and sesquioxides contribute significantly to creating naturally occurring filtration systems, removing metals, and protecting water quality. High Ca, Fe, and Ti in Group A soils suggest slag and ash were mixed into the soils. Some low-Cr sources include magnetite, slag, and ash (100, 100 and 200 mg/kg, respectively). Constant ZrO2:TiO2 ratios in the lower soils indicate soil formation from breakdown of underlying tailing rocks, contributing Cr to these layers.

KW - Ash

KW - Chromium

KW - Metal contamination

KW - Slag

KW - Soil organic matter

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M3 - Article

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SN - 1866-6280

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