While small groups have o en been conceptualized as a “hook” for initiating an individual’s motivation for learning (Mitchell, 1993), there may be reason for reexamining this claim. Collaborative groups are increasingly prevalent, yet motivation researchers have predominantly studied individual motivation during independent learning, with few studies investigating students’ motivational responses to learning in group contexts (Järvelä, Volet, & Järvenoja, 2010). Moreover, learning with peers in groups raises challenges that may undermine rather than support an individual’s motivation. Within the small-group literature, most researchers focus on the bene ts of groups for learning and achievement, but largely ignore motivational outcomes (Webb & Palincsar, 1996). Accordingly, the goal of this chapter is to synthesize extant research in order to examine the evidence for the motivational bene ts and challenges of collaborative groups. is review also serves as the basis for suggesting new directions for future research.