National Nursing Association and Regulatory Authority Websites of Low-Income and Lower-Middle–Income Countries

Andrew Scanlon, Maria Murphy, Janice Smolowitz, Virginia Lewis

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Scopus citations


Introduction: The literature about advanced practice registered nurses (APRNs) in low-income countries (LICs) and lower-middle–income countries (LMICs) is limited. Understanding APRNs in LICs and LMICs is important, given that training and education for these roles are substantially more cost effective and have demonstrated positive patient outcomes compared to other models of care. Knowing how these countries educate, define practice, and regulate APRNs can help in developing and implementing nursing initiatives in countries underserved by healthcare resources. Aim: This content summary analysis sought to determine how nursing regulatory authorities and national nursing associations in LICs and LMICs identify and represent APRN titles. Methods: The Global Regulatory Atlas, the International Council of Nurses membership list, and targeted internet searches were used to identify national nursing associations and nursing regulatory authority websites and their descriptions of APRN titles. Descriptions were compared to the International Council of Nursing's characteristics of APRNs. Results: Ten nursing regulatory authorities and four national nursing associations referenced APRN titles. Forty-five documents were identified. No single or series of documents from any website fully fulfilled the International Council of Nursing's characteristics. Conclusion: Limited data regarding APRN titles were found. Further research is required to determine the presence and nature of APRNs. The function of national nursing regulatory authorities and associations should also be explored.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)48-57
Number of pages10
JournalJournal of Nursing Regulation
Issue number1
StatePublished - Apr 2020


  • APRN
  • advanced practice registered nurses
  • developing countries
  • identifying advanced nursing practice
  • nursing regulation
  • nursing titles
  • website review


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