In practice, a single test is used to quantify an individual's proprioception. Previous studies have not found a correlation between joint position sense (JPS) and force sense (FS), which are submodalities of proprioception. The purpose of the present study is to determine if root mean square (RMS) error in JPS and FS are related at the shoulder, controlling for external load and elevation angle. Active shoulder angle and force reproduction protocols were performed. No correlation was found between JPS and FS (r = –.019, p =.941) nor were any individual angle and load combinations significant. The main effect for angle in JPS was significant (p <.001). Follow-up contrast demonstrated a significant (p <.001) decrease in RMS error with increased elevation. A significant load by angle interaction was found for FS (p =.014). Follow-up simple effects tests by angle demonstrated RMS error decreased with load at 50° and 70° but not at 90°. By load, RMS error only decreased for 120% between 50° and 90°. JPS and FS demonstrate different behavior with load and angle. This differing behavior is more likely responsible for the lack of correlation than angle and load differences in JPS and FS protocols.
- force sense
- joint position sense