Nonlinear source-filter coupling in phonation: Vocal exercises

Ingo Titze, Tobias Riede, Peter Popolo

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

92 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Nonlinear source-filter coupling has been demonstrated in computer simulations, in excised larynx experiments, and in physical models, but not in a consistent and unequivocal way in natural human phonations. Eighteen subjects (nine adult males and nine adult females) performed three vocal exercises that represented a combination of various fundamental frequency and formant glides. The goal of this study was to pinpoint the proportion of source instabilities that are due to nonlinear source-tract coupling. It was hypothesized that vocal fold vibration is maximally destabilized when F0 crosses F1, where the acoustic load changes dramatically. A companion paper provides the theoretical underpinnings. Expected manifestations of a source-filter interaction were sudden frequency jumps, subharmonic generation, or chaotic vocal fold vibrations that coincide with F0 - F1 crossovers. Results indicated that the bifurcations occur more often in phonations with F0 - F1 crossovers, suggesting that nonlinear source-filter coupling is partly responsible for source instabilities. Furthermore it was observed that male subjects show more bifurcations in phonations with F0 - F1 crossovers, presumably because in normal speech they are less likely to encounter these crossovers as much as females and hence have less practice in suppressing unwanted instabilities.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1902-1915
Number of pages14
JournalJournal of the Acoustical Society of America
Volume123
Issue number4
DOIs
StatePublished - 14 Apr 2008

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physical exercise
filters
crossovers
larynx
vibration
encounters
Phonation
Exercise
Filter
proportion
computerized simulation
acoustics
interactions

Cite this

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Nonlinear source-filter coupling in phonation : Vocal exercises. / Titze, Ingo; Riede, Tobias; Popolo, Peter.

In: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, Vol. 123, No. 4, 14.04.2008, p. 1902-1915.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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