Of Masks and Men? Gender, Sex, and Protective Measures during COVID-19

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32 Scopus citations


Since the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic in the United States, men have been consistently less likely to report wearing a protective face mask. There are several possible reasons for this difference, including partisanship and gender identity. Using a national live-caller telephone survey that measures gender identity, we show that men's gender identities are strongly related to their views of mask wearing, especially when gender identity is highly salient to the individual. The effects of this interaction of sex and gender are shown to be separate from the effects of partisanship. While partisanship is a significant driver of attitudes about face masks, within partisan groups, men who report completely masculine gender identities are very different from their fellow partisans.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1052-1062
Number of pages11
JournalPolitics and Gender
Issue number4
StatePublished - Dec 2020


  • COVID-19
  • Masculinity
  • gender identity
  • men's health


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