In this article, we provide a brief review of some generalizations of the second grade fluid model. We discuss certain similarities between these fluids and fluids of higher grades, while also describing certain limitations of these models. The new models that we put forth are based upon some interesting experimental results which suggest that not only can normal stress coefficients depend upon the shear rate, but that this dependency is in fact not the same rate as that of shear viscosity variation with shear rate. We then discuss some steady flows of these generalized second grade fluid models.
- Constitutive relations
- Continuum mechanics
- Generalized second grade fluid
- Temperature and shear dependent viscosity
- Viscometric flows