Pilot-scale tests were performed to reduce the formation of several nitrogenous and carbonaceous disinfection by-products (DBPs) with an integrated ozone and biological activated carbon (O 3-BAC) treatment process following conventional water treatment processes (coagulation-sedimentation-filtration). Relative to the conventional processes alone, O 3-BAC significantly improved the removal of turbidity, dissolved organic carbon, UV 254, NH4+ and dissolved organic nitrogen from 98-99%, 58-72%, 31-53%, 16-93% and 35-74%, respectively, and enhanced the removal efficiency of the precursors for the measured DBPs. The conventional process was almost ineffective in removing the precursors of trichloronitromethane (TCNM) and dichloroacetamide (DCAcAm). Ozonation could not substantially reduce the formation of DCAcAm, and actually increased the formation potential of TCNM; it chemically altered the molecular structures of the precursors and increased the biodegradability of N-containing organic compounds. Consequently, the subsequent BAC filtration substantially reduced the formation of the both TCNM and DCAcAm, thus highlighting a synergistic effect of O 3 and BAC. Additionally, O 3-BAC was effective at controlling the formation of the total organic halogen, which can be considered as an indicator of the formation of unidentified DBPs.
- Biological activated carbon
- Dissolved nitrogen
- Nitrogenous disinfection by-products