Perception of competence in middle school physical education: Instrument development and validation

Kristin Scrabis-Fletcher, Stephen Silvermanv

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16 Scopus citations


Perception of Competence (POC) has been studied extensively in physical activity (PA) research with similar instruments adapted for physical education (PE) research. Such instruments do not account for the unique PE learning environment. Therefore, an instrument was developed and the scores validated to measure POC in middle school PE. A multiphase design was used consisting of an intensive theoretical review, elicitation study, prepilot study, pilot study, content validation study, and final validation study (N = 1,281). Data analysis included a multistep iterative process to identify the best model fit. A three-factor model for POC was tested and resulted in root mean square error of approximation = .09, root mean square residual = .07, goodness of fit index = .90, and adjusted goodness of fit index = .86 values in the acceptable range (Hu & Bentler, 1999). A two-factor model was also tested and resulted in a good fit (two-factor fit indexes values = .05, .03, .98, .97, respectively). The results of this study suggest that an instrument using a three- or two-factor model provides reliable and valid scores of POC measurement in middle school PE.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)52-61
Number of pages10
JournalResearch Quarterly for Exercise and Sport
Issue number1
StatePublished - Mar 2010


  • Motivation
  • Social cognitive theory


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