Plant colonization of green roofs is affected by composition of established native plant communities

Jason M. Aloisio, Matthew I. Palmer, Amy Tuininga, James D. Lewis

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Human activities associated with urbanization have negatively affected the biodiversity of native plant communities globally. Establishing native species assemblages on green roofs may help conserve native plant diversity in urban areas, but these assemblages are susceptible to colonization by species from the surrounding landscape. In natural communities, colonization from the regional species pool reflects the filtering effects of both abiotic and biotic factors, but the relative effects of these factors on green roof colonization are not well-understood. To address this knowledge gap, we studied colonization dynamics of 10 green roofs in New York City (NY, United States), each established at the same time with the same source materials. On each roof, 12 plots were established, with one-half of each plot planted with an erect C 4 graminoid dominant (Hempstead Plains: HP) and the other half with a tuft C 3 graminoid and forb dominant (Rocky Summit: RS) species assemblage derived from native communities. Six of the 12 split-plots contained shallow growing medium, while the other six contained deeper growing medium. Resident plants were planted in October 2010. Fifty-eight non-resident plant species colonized plots between August 2011 and August 2012, with two native and 10 non-native species accounting for 90% of total colonist dry mass. Colonist dry mass and richness decreased with increasing resident plant cover, but the effects of growing medium depth on colonist dry mass and richness differed between assemblages. Forbs accounted for 81% of the colonist dry mass from the HP assemblage, but just 31% in the RS assemblage. Further, forbs accounted for over 95% of colonist dry mass in June and July, while graminoids accounted for over 95% of colonist dry mass in August. These results indicate colonization of planted green roofs may be strongly affected by the composition of established plant assemblages and that these effects may vary temporally with colonist management regime, even within a single growing season. Further, the inconsistent effects of growing medium depth suggest that niche overlap and complementarity in rhizosphere dynamics may influence colonization more in some systems compared with others. Additional research is required to describe the effects of colonist management strategies, as well as the roles of priority effects, niche complementarity and community assembly, on long-term dynamics of colonization on green roofs planted with native plants.

Original languageEnglish
Article number238
JournalFrontiers in Ecology and Evolution
Volume6
Issue numberJAN
DOIs
StatePublished - 17 Jan 2019

Fingerprint

green roofs
roof
plant community
plant communities
colonization
growing media
forbs
complementarity
niches
botanical composition
niche overlap
ground cover plants
species pool
biotic factor
urbanization
urban areas
effect
rhizosphere
native species
indigenous species

Keywords

  • Assembly
  • Colonization
  • Conservation
  • Grassland plant communities
  • Green roofs
  • Priority effects
  • Restoration
  • Urban ecology

Cite this

@article{20c4a652884d45aaba735527cfab8942,
title = "Plant colonization of green roofs is affected by composition of established native plant communities",
abstract = "Human activities associated with urbanization have negatively affected the biodiversity of native plant communities globally. Establishing native species assemblages on green roofs may help conserve native plant diversity in urban areas, but these assemblages are susceptible to colonization by species from the surrounding landscape. In natural communities, colonization from the regional species pool reflects the filtering effects of both abiotic and biotic factors, but the relative effects of these factors on green roof colonization are not well-understood. To address this knowledge gap, we studied colonization dynamics of 10 green roofs in New York City (NY, United States), each established at the same time with the same source materials. On each roof, 12 plots were established, with one-half of each plot planted with an erect C 4 graminoid dominant (Hempstead Plains: HP) and the other half with a tuft C 3 graminoid and forb dominant (Rocky Summit: RS) species assemblage derived from native communities. Six of the 12 split-plots contained shallow growing medium, while the other six contained deeper growing medium. Resident plants were planted in October 2010. Fifty-eight non-resident plant species colonized plots between August 2011 and August 2012, with two native and 10 non-native species accounting for 90{\%} of total colonist dry mass. Colonist dry mass and richness decreased with increasing resident plant cover, but the effects of growing medium depth on colonist dry mass and richness differed between assemblages. Forbs accounted for 81{\%} of the colonist dry mass from the HP assemblage, but just 31{\%} in the RS assemblage. Further, forbs accounted for over 95{\%} of colonist dry mass in June and July, while graminoids accounted for over 95{\%} of colonist dry mass in August. These results indicate colonization of planted green roofs may be strongly affected by the composition of established plant assemblages and that these effects may vary temporally with colonist management regime, even within a single growing season. Further, the inconsistent effects of growing medium depth suggest that niche overlap and complementarity in rhizosphere dynamics may influence colonization more in some systems compared with others. Additional research is required to describe the effects of colonist management strategies, as well as the roles of priority effects, niche complementarity and community assembly, on long-term dynamics of colonization on green roofs planted with native plants.",
keywords = "Assembly, Colonization, Conservation, Grassland plant communities, Green roofs, Priority effects, Restoration, Urban ecology",
author = "Aloisio, {Jason M.} and Palmer, {Matthew I.} and Amy Tuininga and Lewis, {James D.}",
year = "2019",
month = "1",
day = "17",
doi = "10.3389/fevo.2018.00238",
language = "English",
volume = "6",
journal = "Frontiers in Ecology and Evolution",
issn = "2296-701X",
publisher = "Frontiers Media S.A.",
number = "JAN",

}

Plant colonization of green roofs is affected by composition of established native plant communities. / Aloisio, Jason M.; Palmer, Matthew I.; Tuininga, Amy; Lewis, James D.

In: Frontiers in Ecology and Evolution, Vol. 6, No. JAN, 238, 17.01.2019.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

TY - JOUR

T1 - Plant colonization of green roofs is affected by composition of established native plant communities

AU - Aloisio, Jason M.

AU - Palmer, Matthew I.

AU - Tuininga, Amy

AU - Lewis, James D.

PY - 2019/1/17

Y1 - 2019/1/17

N2 - Human activities associated with urbanization have negatively affected the biodiversity of native plant communities globally. Establishing native species assemblages on green roofs may help conserve native plant diversity in urban areas, but these assemblages are susceptible to colonization by species from the surrounding landscape. In natural communities, colonization from the regional species pool reflects the filtering effects of both abiotic and biotic factors, but the relative effects of these factors on green roof colonization are not well-understood. To address this knowledge gap, we studied colonization dynamics of 10 green roofs in New York City (NY, United States), each established at the same time with the same source materials. On each roof, 12 plots were established, with one-half of each plot planted with an erect C 4 graminoid dominant (Hempstead Plains: HP) and the other half with a tuft C 3 graminoid and forb dominant (Rocky Summit: RS) species assemblage derived from native communities. Six of the 12 split-plots contained shallow growing medium, while the other six contained deeper growing medium. Resident plants were planted in October 2010. Fifty-eight non-resident plant species colonized plots between August 2011 and August 2012, with two native and 10 non-native species accounting for 90% of total colonist dry mass. Colonist dry mass and richness decreased with increasing resident plant cover, but the effects of growing medium depth on colonist dry mass and richness differed between assemblages. Forbs accounted for 81% of the colonist dry mass from the HP assemblage, but just 31% in the RS assemblage. Further, forbs accounted for over 95% of colonist dry mass in June and July, while graminoids accounted for over 95% of colonist dry mass in August. These results indicate colonization of planted green roofs may be strongly affected by the composition of established plant assemblages and that these effects may vary temporally with colonist management regime, even within a single growing season. Further, the inconsistent effects of growing medium depth suggest that niche overlap and complementarity in rhizosphere dynamics may influence colonization more in some systems compared with others. Additional research is required to describe the effects of colonist management strategies, as well as the roles of priority effects, niche complementarity and community assembly, on long-term dynamics of colonization on green roofs planted with native plants.

AB - Human activities associated with urbanization have negatively affected the biodiversity of native plant communities globally. Establishing native species assemblages on green roofs may help conserve native plant diversity in urban areas, but these assemblages are susceptible to colonization by species from the surrounding landscape. In natural communities, colonization from the regional species pool reflects the filtering effects of both abiotic and biotic factors, but the relative effects of these factors on green roof colonization are not well-understood. To address this knowledge gap, we studied colonization dynamics of 10 green roofs in New York City (NY, United States), each established at the same time with the same source materials. On each roof, 12 plots were established, with one-half of each plot planted with an erect C 4 graminoid dominant (Hempstead Plains: HP) and the other half with a tuft C 3 graminoid and forb dominant (Rocky Summit: RS) species assemblage derived from native communities. Six of the 12 split-plots contained shallow growing medium, while the other six contained deeper growing medium. Resident plants were planted in October 2010. Fifty-eight non-resident plant species colonized plots between August 2011 and August 2012, with two native and 10 non-native species accounting for 90% of total colonist dry mass. Colonist dry mass and richness decreased with increasing resident plant cover, but the effects of growing medium depth on colonist dry mass and richness differed between assemblages. Forbs accounted for 81% of the colonist dry mass from the HP assemblage, but just 31% in the RS assemblage. Further, forbs accounted for over 95% of colonist dry mass in June and July, while graminoids accounted for over 95% of colonist dry mass in August. These results indicate colonization of planted green roofs may be strongly affected by the composition of established plant assemblages and that these effects may vary temporally with colonist management regime, even within a single growing season. Further, the inconsistent effects of growing medium depth suggest that niche overlap and complementarity in rhizosphere dynamics may influence colonization more in some systems compared with others. Additional research is required to describe the effects of colonist management strategies, as well as the roles of priority effects, niche complementarity and community assembly, on long-term dynamics of colonization on green roofs planted with native plants.

KW - Assembly

KW - Colonization

KW - Conservation

KW - Grassland plant communities

KW - Green roofs

KW - Priority effects

KW - Restoration

KW - Urban ecology

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=85060397147&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.3389/fevo.2018.00238

DO - 10.3389/fevo.2018.00238

M3 - Article

AN - SCOPUS:85060397147

VL - 6

JO - Frontiers in Ecology and Evolution

JF - Frontiers in Ecology and Evolution

SN - 2296-701X

IS - JAN

M1 - 238

ER -