Policing a Negotiated World: A Partial Test of Klinger’s Ecological Theory of Policing

Travis A. Taniguchi, Christopher Salvatore

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

5 Scopus citations


Objectives: Klinger’s (Criminology 35(2): 277–306, 1997) ecological theory of policing addresses the intersection of environment and police organizational structure on police patrol practices. The current study addresses the following question: ‘Is police response to calls for service influenced by the level of serious violent crime or the level of officer staffing?’ Methods: This question was addressed using crime, incident, and staffing data supplied by the Philadelphia Police Department. The dependent variable was the number of unfounded events per month, per police district, from 2004 to 2008. Analysis controlled for linear and non-linear trends, average monthly temperature, month length, and spatial effects. Data were analyzed using repeated measures multilevel modeling. Results: Findings suggested that the quantity of unfounded events was associated with both workload and officer staffing levels. Consistent with theoretical predictions, higher workload was associated with more unfounded incidents while higher levels of officer staffing was associated with fewer unfounded incidents, net of ongoing trends and spatial effects. Conclusions: These findings are consistent with the Ecological Theory of Policing and suggest that officers may shed workload in response to higher demands for service or lower levels of officer availability.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)345-366
Number of pages22
JournalJournal of Quantitative Criminology
Issue number2
StatePublished - 1 Jun 2018


  • Ecological theory of policing
  • Negotiated order
  • Policing


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