Precursors of dichloroacetamide, an emerging nitrogenous DBP formed during chlorination or chloramination

Wen Hai Chu, Nai Yun Gao, Yang Deng, Stuart W. Krasner

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Abstract

Haloacetamides (HAcAms) are an emerging class of nitrogenous disinfection byproducts (N-DBPs). However, there is a limited understanding about the precursors of HAcAms. In this study, we screened the precursors of dichloroacetamide (DCAcAm), the most commonly identified HAcAm in chlorinated or chloraminated drinking water. DCAcAm formation potential (FP) of raw water samples collected in different months from a reservoir in China was determined during chlorination, and the highest DCAcAm FP typically occurred in the summer samples. Dissolved organic matter (DOM) in a representative summer raw water sample was separated into six fractions by a series of resin elutions. Among them, hydrophilic acid (HiA) DOM showed the maximum DCAcAm FP, followed by hydrophilic bases (HiB) and, to a much lower extent, hydrophobic acids (HoA). Fluorescence excitation-emission matrix (EEM) spectra revealed that a mass of protein-like substances in the HiA fraction, made up of amino acids (AAs), were the likely DCAcAm precursors. Finally, we investigated the DCAcAm yields of 20 AAs during chlorination. Among them, seven AAs (aspartic acid, histidine, tyrosine, tryptophan, glutamine, asparagine, phenylalanine) could form DCAcAm during chlorination, with the corresponding DCAcAm yields of 0.231, 0.189, 0.153, 0.104, 0.078, 0.058, and 0.050 mmol/mol AA.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)3908-3912
Number of pages5
JournalEnvironmental Science and Technology
Volume44
Issue number10
DOIs
StatePublished - 15 May 2010

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Chlorination
chlorination
amino acid
dissolved organic matter
acid
Amino Acids
aspartic acid
summer
disinfection
Biological materials
Acids
resin
fluorescence
drinking water
matrix
protein
2,2-dichloroacetamide
Water
Disinfection
Asparagine

Cite this

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title = "Precursors of dichloroacetamide, an emerging nitrogenous DBP formed during chlorination or chloramination",
abstract = "Haloacetamides (HAcAms) are an emerging class of nitrogenous disinfection byproducts (N-DBPs). However, there is a limited understanding about the precursors of HAcAms. In this study, we screened the precursors of dichloroacetamide (DCAcAm), the most commonly identified HAcAm in chlorinated or chloraminated drinking water. DCAcAm formation potential (FP) of raw water samples collected in different months from a reservoir in China was determined during chlorination, and the highest DCAcAm FP typically occurred in the summer samples. Dissolved organic matter (DOM) in a representative summer raw water sample was separated into six fractions by a series of resin elutions. Among them, hydrophilic acid (HiA) DOM showed the maximum DCAcAm FP, followed by hydrophilic bases (HiB) and, to a much lower extent, hydrophobic acids (HoA). Fluorescence excitation-emission matrix (EEM) spectra revealed that a mass of protein-like substances in the HiA fraction, made up of amino acids (AAs), were the likely DCAcAm precursors. Finally, we investigated the DCAcAm yields of 20 AAs during chlorination. Among them, seven AAs (aspartic acid, histidine, tyrosine, tryptophan, glutamine, asparagine, phenylalanine) could form DCAcAm during chlorination, with the corresponding DCAcAm yields of 0.231, 0.189, 0.153, 0.104, 0.078, 0.058, and 0.050 mmol/mol AA.",
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Precursors of dichloroacetamide, an emerging nitrogenous DBP formed during chlorination or chloramination. / Chu, Wen Hai; Gao, Nai Yun; Deng, Yang; Krasner, Stuart W.

In: Environmental Science and Technology, Vol. 44, No. 10, 15.05.2010, p. 3908-3912.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

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T1 - Precursors of dichloroacetamide, an emerging nitrogenous DBP formed during chlorination or chloramination

AU - Chu, Wen Hai

AU - Gao, Nai Yun

AU - Deng, Yang

AU - Krasner, Stuart W.

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