Principal component analysis to assess the efficiency and mechanism for enhanced coagulation of natural algae-laden water using a novel dual coagulant system

Hua Se Ou, Chao Hai Wei, Yang Deng, Nai Yun Gao, Yuan Ren, Yun Hu

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

10 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

A novel dual coagulant system of polyaluminum chloride sulfate (PACS) and polydiallyldimethylammonium chloride (PDADMAC) was used to treat natural algae-laden water from Meiliang Gulf, Lake Taihu. PACS (Aln(OH)mCl3n-m-2k(SO4)k) has a mass ratio of 10 %, a SO4 2-/Al3 + mole ratio of 0.0664, and an OH/Al mole ratio of 2. The PDADMAC ([C8H16NCl]m) has a MW which ranges from 5 × 105 to 20 × 105 Da. The variations of contaminants in water samples during treatments were estimated in the form of principal component analysis (PCA) factor scores and conventional variables (turbidity, DOC, etc.). Parallel factor analysis determined four chromophoric dissolved organic matters (CDOM) components, and PCA identified four integrated principle factors. PCA factor 1 had significant correlations with chlorophyll-a (r = 0.718), protein-like CDOM C1 (0.689), and C2 (0.756). Factor 2 correlated with UV254 (0.672), humic-like CDOM component C3 (0.716), and C4 (0.758). Factors 3 and 4 had correlations with NH3-N (0.748) and T-P (0.769), respectively. The variations of PCA factors scores revealed that PACS contributed less aluminum dissolution than PAC to obtain equivalent removal efficiency of contaminants. This might be due to the high cationic charge and pre-hydrolyzation of PACS. Compared with PACS coagulation (20 mg L-1), the removal of PCA factors 1, 2, and 4 increased 45, 33, and 12 %, respectively, in combined PACS-PDADMAC treatment (0.8 mg L-1 + 20 mg L-1). Since PAC contained more Al (0.053 g/1 g) than PACS (0.028 g/1 g), the results indicated that PACS contributed less Al dissolution into the water to obtain equivalent removal efficiency.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2122-2131
Number of pages10
JournalEnvironmental Science and Pollution Research
Volume21
Issue number3
DOIs
StatePublished - 1 Feb 2014

Fingerprint

Coagulants
Algae
Principal Component Analysis
Coagulation
coagulation
Principal component analysis
Sulfates
principal component analysis
alga
chloride
Water
sulfate
Biological materials
Chlorides
water
dissolved organic matter
Dissolution
Impurities
aluminum oxychloride
dissolution

Keywords

  • Algae-laden water
  • CDOM
  • Coagulation
  • PCA
  • Polyaluminum chloride sulfate
  • Polydiallyldimethylammonium chloride

Cite this

@article{362c862bcaef4ff2abe67b5edb40130a,
title = "Principal component analysis to assess the efficiency and mechanism for enhanced coagulation of natural algae-laden water using a novel dual coagulant system",
abstract = "A novel dual coagulant system of polyaluminum chloride sulfate (PACS) and polydiallyldimethylammonium chloride (PDADMAC) was used to treat natural algae-laden water from Meiliang Gulf, Lake Taihu. PACS (Aln(OH)mCl3n-m-2k(SO4)k) has a mass ratio of 10 {\%}, a SO4 2-/Al3 + mole ratio of 0.0664, and an OH/Al mole ratio of 2. The PDADMAC ([C8H16NCl]m) has a MW which ranges from 5 × 105 to 20 × 105 Da. The variations of contaminants in water samples during treatments were estimated in the form of principal component analysis (PCA) factor scores and conventional variables (turbidity, DOC, etc.). Parallel factor analysis determined four chromophoric dissolved organic matters (CDOM) components, and PCA identified four integrated principle factors. PCA factor 1 had significant correlations with chlorophyll-a (r = 0.718), protein-like CDOM C1 (0.689), and C2 (0.756). Factor 2 correlated with UV254 (0.672), humic-like CDOM component C3 (0.716), and C4 (0.758). Factors 3 and 4 had correlations with NH3-N (0.748) and T-P (0.769), respectively. The variations of PCA factors scores revealed that PACS contributed less aluminum dissolution than PAC to obtain equivalent removal efficiency of contaminants. This might be due to the high cationic charge and pre-hydrolyzation of PACS. Compared with PACS coagulation (20 mg L-1), the removal of PCA factors 1, 2, and 4 increased 45, 33, and 12 {\%}, respectively, in combined PACS-PDADMAC treatment (0.8 mg L-1 + 20 mg L-1). Since PAC contained more Al (0.053 g/1 g) than PACS (0.028 g/1 g), the results indicated that PACS contributed less Al dissolution into the water to obtain equivalent removal efficiency.",
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Principal component analysis to assess the efficiency and mechanism for enhanced coagulation of natural algae-laden water using a novel dual coagulant system. / Ou, Hua Se; Wei, Chao Hai; Deng, Yang; Gao, Nai Yun; Ren, Yuan; Hu, Yun.

In: Environmental Science and Pollution Research, Vol. 21, No. 3, 01.02.2014, p. 2122-2131.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

TY - JOUR

T1 - Principal component analysis to assess the efficiency and mechanism for enhanced coagulation of natural algae-laden water using a novel dual coagulant system

AU - Ou, Hua Se

AU - Wei, Chao Hai

AU - Deng, Yang

AU - Gao, Nai Yun

AU - Ren, Yuan

AU - Hu, Yun

PY - 2014/2/1

Y1 - 2014/2/1

N2 - A novel dual coagulant system of polyaluminum chloride sulfate (PACS) and polydiallyldimethylammonium chloride (PDADMAC) was used to treat natural algae-laden water from Meiliang Gulf, Lake Taihu. PACS (Aln(OH)mCl3n-m-2k(SO4)k) has a mass ratio of 10 %, a SO4 2-/Al3 + mole ratio of 0.0664, and an OH/Al mole ratio of 2. The PDADMAC ([C8H16NCl]m) has a MW which ranges from 5 × 105 to 20 × 105 Da. The variations of contaminants in water samples during treatments were estimated in the form of principal component analysis (PCA) factor scores and conventional variables (turbidity, DOC, etc.). Parallel factor analysis determined four chromophoric dissolved organic matters (CDOM) components, and PCA identified four integrated principle factors. PCA factor 1 had significant correlations with chlorophyll-a (r = 0.718), protein-like CDOM C1 (0.689), and C2 (0.756). Factor 2 correlated with UV254 (0.672), humic-like CDOM component C3 (0.716), and C4 (0.758). Factors 3 and 4 had correlations with NH3-N (0.748) and T-P (0.769), respectively. The variations of PCA factors scores revealed that PACS contributed less aluminum dissolution than PAC to obtain equivalent removal efficiency of contaminants. This might be due to the high cationic charge and pre-hydrolyzation of PACS. Compared with PACS coagulation (20 mg L-1), the removal of PCA factors 1, 2, and 4 increased 45, 33, and 12 %, respectively, in combined PACS-PDADMAC treatment (0.8 mg L-1 + 20 mg L-1). Since PAC contained more Al (0.053 g/1 g) than PACS (0.028 g/1 g), the results indicated that PACS contributed less Al dissolution into the water to obtain equivalent removal efficiency.

AB - A novel dual coagulant system of polyaluminum chloride sulfate (PACS) and polydiallyldimethylammonium chloride (PDADMAC) was used to treat natural algae-laden water from Meiliang Gulf, Lake Taihu. PACS (Aln(OH)mCl3n-m-2k(SO4)k) has a mass ratio of 10 %, a SO4 2-/Al3 + mole ratio of 0.0664, and an OH/Al mole ratio of 2. The PDADMAC ([C8H16NCl]m) has a MW which ranges from 5 × 105 to 20 × 105 Da. The variations of contaminants in water samples during treatments were estimated in the form of principal component analysis (PCA) factor scores and conventional variables (turbidity, DOC, etc.). Parallel factor analysis determined four chromophoric dissolved organic matters (CDOM) components, and PCA identified four integrated principle factors. PCA factor 1 had significant correlations with chlorophyll-a (r = 0.718), protein-like CDOM C1 (0.689), and C2 (0.756). Factor 2 correlated with UV254 (0.672), humic-like CDOM component C3 (0.716), and C4 (0.758). Factors 3 and 4 had correlations with NH3-N (0.748) and T-P (0.769), respectively. The variations of PCA factors scores revealed that PACS contributed less aluminum dissolution than PAC to obtain equivalent removal efficiency of contaminants. This might be due to the high cationic charge and pre-hydrolyzation of PACS. Compared with PACS coagulation (20 mg L-1), the removal of PCA factors 1, 2, and 4 increased 45, 33, and 12 %, respectively, in combined PACS-PDADMAC treatment (0.8 mg L-1 + 20 mg L-1). Since PAC contained more Al (0.053 g/1 g) than PACS (0.028 g/1 g), the results indicated that PACS contributed less Al dissolution into the water to obtain equivalent removal efficiency.

KW - Algae-laden water

KW - CDOM

KW - Coagulation

KW - PCA

KW - Polyaluminum chloride sulfate

KW - Polydiallyldimethylammonium chloride

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U2 - 10.1007/s11356-013-2077-z

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