Recovery and Reuse of Composite Cathode Binder in Lithium Ion Batteries

Amrita Sarkar, Richard May, Sapna Ramesh, Wesley Chang, Lauren E. Marbella

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

21 Scopus citations


Here, we investigate the recovery and reuse of polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) binders from both homemade and commercial cathode films in Li ion batteries. We find that PVDF solubility depends on whether the polymer is an isolated powder or cast into a composite film. A mixture of tetrahydrofuran:N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (THF : NMP, 50 : 50 v/v) at 90 °C delaminates composite cathodes from Al current collectors and yields pure PVDF as characterized by 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), gel permeation chromatography (GPC), wide-angle X-ray scattering (WAXS), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). PVDF recovered from Li ion cells post-cycling exhibits similar performance to pristine PVDF. These data suggest that PVDF can be extracted and reused during Li ion battery recycling while simultaneously eliminating the formation of HF etchants, providing an incentive for use in direct cathode recycling.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)545-552
Number of pages8
Issue number5
StatePublished - May 2021


  • HF elimination
  • PVDF recycling
  • PVDF solubility
  • direct cathode recycling
  • lithium-ion batteries


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